Align portfolio or project with Sustainable Development Goals, Targets & Indicators
WHAT IS UN SDG
The United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals, also known as The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, comprises 17 Global Goals, 169 associated targets, and 230 individual indicators. This international collaboration between 193 UN Member States and global organizations and agencies is outlined in the UN Resolution A/RES/70/1 established in September 2015.
“We don’t have plan B because there is no planet B.”
Before the SDGs, the UN launched the 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), a set of 8 Global Goals outlined in 2000. There were mixed reactions at the close of the 2015 campaign as to the success of the project. Most agreed that the absence of targets and indicators hindered the actionable and measurable collaborative effort. This aspect was purposefully incorporated in the subsequent SDGs.
The SDGs are seen as a step towards international collective impact efforts, focusing and guiding humanitarian efforts worldwide.
SDG Reporting vs SDG WashingRead More
HOW TO ALIGN IMPACT INVESTORSRead More
Complete Guide of SDG Goals, Targets, and IndicatorsRead More
WHY ALIGN WITH SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS
There are important reasons why companies align with the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in their impact reporting.
- Communicate local impact in a global language. While there are multiple impact frameworks, standards, and tools, most organizations still struggle to measure, manage, and communicate the impact. The SDGs offer a shared impact framework and language, making it more accessible worldwide and easier to compare results across the globe.
- Millennials seek transparency when accepting jobs, buying products, and making investments. The corporate impact is much more important to this generation than previous generations. They are asking hard questions beyond surface-level statistics and reporting. How are you creating an impact? What are the externalities? Who are stakeholders and beneficiaries? Aligning with the SDGs in the right way shows that a company understands the context of its desired impact and its role in the greater global effort for its specific impact area.
- Social impact has become a centerpiece in business strategy. Business needs permission (positive engagement) from people to do well. One of the biggest challenges facing private equity, corporate, impact investors, and other asset owners is how to build a portfolio that defines and generates true impact. This challenge is addressed by groups such as the Impact Management Project (IMP), TONIIC T-100, and OCED.
A global indicator framework for the Sustainable Development Goals and targets of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
The Partnerships for SDGs online platform is the United Nations’ global registry of voluntary commitments and multi-stakeholder partnerships made in support of sustainable development and the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. The Partnerships for SDGs platform also facilitates sharing knowledge and expertise among multi-stakeholder SDG-related partnerships and voluntary commitments and providing periodic updates on their progress.
Sustainable Development Goal indicators should be disaggregated, where relevant, by income, sex, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, and geographic location, or other characteristics, by the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics.1
SDG REPORTING VS. SDG WASHING
What is SDG washing? There are two ways to define it:
- When companies make a profit by doing well on one SDG, one situation occurs when companies are harming other SDGs.
- The other involves businesses who talk about their commitment to SDGs yet don’t have any data to back the impact reports. In other words, they’re all bark and no bite...
I know that as a socially-conscious company, the last thing you want to do is fall into this SDG-washing category. So here are some tips to avoid falling into the trap:
- Align your indicators to SDG targets and not just SDG Goals
- Measure and report on the actual outcomes, not just the activities
- Measure unintended and negative outcomes too
- Collaborate in multi-stakeholder partnerships
Everyone knows that there are 17 Global Goals, but did you know that the UN has also defined 169 SDG targets that give us a clear guideline on each goal's impact and context?
For example, goal 4, “Quality Education,” has 10 targets. Target 4.3, as an example, talks about ensuring equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical, vocational, and tertiary education, including university. So if you have a program with a high-quality education, but it’s not “affordable” according to your community and context, you can’t really claim that you align to SDG 4.
Let me give you another example. Your organization has a program focused on educating students from an underserved community, and you want to report alignment to SDG 1, “No Poverty.” You assume that by providing job-related skills to your students, they will find a job and reduce their poverty level.
So What do you do next to make sure you measure what matters in terms of SDGs? You guessed it! Let’s first examine the list of targets for SDG 1 to understand what poverty reduction means. Target 1.1 talks about eradicating extreme poverty, currently measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day.
First, make sure to know what the poverty level is in the community you are working with; is it $1.25 a day? Has the data been updated recently?
Second, make sure to collect data that indicates how much money your beneficiaries are making in their new job. If their salary doesn’t go above the poverty line, it doesn’t matter that they have a new job; the specific target is not being fulfilled.
If we go back to our previous example, reporting on activities would mean tracking the number of people enrolled in your program or the graduation rate. While these numbers are important to track your program’s performance, it is more important to understand how the skills learned in your program are useful to the participants in their current jobs. Or how having this additional training improves the participant's chances to get a job that satisfies them.
The main purpose of impact measurement is to identify what we are doing right and improve. You obviously don’t intend to affect your stakeholders in any way, but sometimes it could happen without you noticing.
For example, you could be focusing on providing skills and tools for a community to subsist on fishing. Maybe your community members are using the fish to feed their families, which is great for SDG Zero Hunger. Maybe they are even making good money by selling the fish to other communities, which helps SDG No Poverty. But if you are not careful, you could end up affecting SDG Land underwater, which has a target focused on ending overfishing and implementing plans to restore fish stocks.
So, to recap:
- When aligning to the Sustainable Development Goals, make sure to understand their underlying targets.
- Measure outcomes and collect the appropriate data to make sure that your organization is really improving your beneficiaries' lives according to the SDG targets.
- Manage negative outcomes to make sure that you don’t affect your stakeholders in ways that contradict other SDGs.
- Collaborate with similar players to increase your reach and impact.
What is SDG washing? Are you a business with the vision to drive social impact through Sustainable Development Goals or Global Goals? Are you concerned about potentially over claiming SDG impact?
How do you align your impact management with sustainable development goals or Global Goals (SDG Goals, SDG Targets, and SDG Indicators)? How to find the most relevant SDG Targets and SDG Indicators?
Aligning with SDG Goals and Targets
Businesses cannot thrive in poverty, inequality, unrest, and environmental stress. The SDGs are anticipated to generate at least US$12 trillion worth of market opportunities by 2030, which makes a strong business case for investing in opportunities aligned with the SDGs for investors and businesses.
So if you’re a fund manager, you might want to focus on SDG-aligned companies. And if you’re a social enterprise or nonprofit, it’s in your best interest to demonstrate your impact as part of the efforts to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.
To help you achieve those goals, here are the 4 actionable tips for selecting the right outcomes, metrics and aligning them to SDG:
- Social Value International (in short, S-V-I) is changing how society accounts for value through principles, practice, people, and power. Their seven principles guide businesses, investors, and accelerators in aligning social value in decision-making. According to Social Value International’s principles of “Involve Stakeholders” and “Understand what changes,” you should talk to your beneficiaries and identify what they consider material outcomes. Then, explore how the outcomes are linked to each other and develop indicators to measure if the outcome has occurred and how much of the outcome.
- Before you develop your indicators, before creating any bespoke metrics, please take a look at the IRIS+ standard developed by the Global Impact Investing Network. IRIS+ has a catalog with generally accepted output and outcome metrics already aligned to SDG and categorized by impact areas such as Agriculture, Climate, Education, and many more. Chances are 40% to 50% of your metrics needs will be covered by IRIS+, and even if you have to create the rest of the metrics as custom, you will have a better idea of how to define them.
- If you’re still not clear where your impact fits in the 17 SDGs, don’t take a guess; review all the SDG targets in detail. For example, if your organization provides free breakfast to students in rural schools, you might think you fit in SDG 4 - Quality Education. But in reality, this SDG only focuses on equal access to quality education to acquire relevant skills. However, looking at SDG 2 - Zero Hunger, you might find alignment with target 2.2 related to ending malnutrition in children. On the other hand, you could be aligned to more than one SDG at once. For example, if you run a program to help smallholder women farmers in a developing country, you might be hitting the goals “No Poverty,” “Zero Hunger,” “Gender Equality,” and “Decent Work & Economic Growth.”
- Finally, if you’re in the private sector working on private impact investment funds, impact investment bonds, or enterprise, you might want to keep an eye on
This initiative focuses on generating and leveraging private sector capital in delivering Sustainable Development Goals. SDG Impact is in the process of refining the “SDG Impact Practice Assurance Standards for Private Equity Funds,” which include:
- The Practice Assurance Standard for Private Equity
- The Certification Framework
- The Mapping Principals
Although these standards are still in the pilot phase, you can already see that they are pretty much aligned with other frameworks and principles that we have been reviewing in this channel. So, that gives you a good idea of where the market is going.
So, to recap:
- Any organization working to benefit society or the planet can measure impact in alignment with Sustainable Development Goals.
- A large amount of capital is moving towards organizations and initiatives supporting the achievement of the SDG.
- To make the SDG alignment process smoother for your organization, start with the standards, frameworks, and guidelines that are already available.
Step-by-Step SDG Alignment
The UN SDGs consist of 17 goals and 169 targets with 230 agreed-upon indicators. Aligning to the SDGs requires planning and understanding the SDGs framework and many other standards from your industry. SoPact's Impact Cloud can help create and align an organization's theory of change with SDG indicators while also combining other standard metrics (and/or custom metrics) smartly.
- It makes SDG reporting simple, whatever the size of the organization.
- What is Sustainable Development Goals SDG or Global Goals?
- Why is it essential to avoid SDG washing?
SDG INDICATORS VS IMPACT INDICATORS
SDG Indicators are Global and National and not effective for organizational impact
HOW TO ALIGN IMPACT INDICATORS
If you are a corporate entity, an impact investor, an international development agency, or a philanthropic organization, and you need to align your metrics to SDG goals and targets, you need metrics mapping. SoPact has built about 4000 metrics, which help make this process seamless and cost-effective.
For example, a business would likely use SDGCompass-based mapping with 10+ standards such as GRI, CDP, etc. Impact investors might use TONIIC T-100 mapping between SDG and IRIS. The Sopact platform includes all these frameworks. Users can also cross-link various other standards such as GRI (which tends to use more qualitative metrics) with IRIS (which tends to have quantitative metrics). By linking them together, different users can create a rich reporting result.
If you are starting the impact measurement process, the first step is to define the goals and targets as per a Theory of Change. Then you'll align with other standards as described above and select appropriate metrics.
The UN's Sustainable Development Goals Report from 2017 cites that "the rate of progress in many areas is far slower than needed to meet the targets by 2030," flagging the urgency to accelerate action. While working hard towards achieving global goals, how can we prevent over-claiming?
Aligning Impact Metrics With SDG
Standard metrics are an essential language to learn and use because they help us communicate with different stakeholders who may be accustomed to using that language because of its relevance to their context. It must be noted that standard metrics have both pros and cons for social impact measurement.
- You’re communicating your impact to a particular audience (within a particular field). Think of standards as languages for communicating with particular audiences (including your funding source(s)). For example, if the stakeholder you are communicating with is an impact investor, 8 out of 10 times, they will prefer to use IRIS metrics. There are many other languages: nonprofit languages, sustainability languages, environment languages, women’s empowerment languages, etc.
- You want to learn the best practices for writing metrics. Extensive research and development have already been completed. Even if you end up tweaking the standard to fit your needs, you can learn lessons from the standards catalogs.
- SDG Indicators
- IRIS Indicators
- B Analytics
- Sustainable Goal Alignment with
- Impact Investing - IRIS and SDG Alignment
- TONIIC T-100 - Sustainable Development Goals – Impact Theme Framework
- Sustainability - SDG Compass
- GRI - SDG and GRI Linkage
- Foundations - STAR Communities
GIIRS Metrics are commonly known as IRIS Indicators, are defined by GIIN. IRIS Metrics is a comprehensive IRIS catalog or database of indicators often used by impact investors and small growing businesses. While IRIS Metrics is fairly adopted, there are many challenges with IRIS indicators, mainly by limited scope in both comprehensiveness and context-specific necessity by entrepreneurs.
IRIS metrics are designed for small and growing businesses (SGB) to measure an investment's social, environmental, and financial performance.
- Align your impact investment indicators with sustainability Linking IRIS with GRI
- This is a great way of aligning both qualitative indicators from GRI to quantitative IRIS metrics.
- Effective reporting perhaps requires aligning SDG Goals & Targets with IRIS and GRI indicators.
B Impact Assessment is a tool that allows impact investors allows to measure a company’s overall social and environmental performance. B Impact Assessment does so by measuring the impact of a business on all stakeholders through an online platform. B Lab also provides a comprehensive tool called B Analytics. On the other provides a tool that automatically aggregates and analyzes B Impact Assessment data from the companies impact investors work with.
The final result is GIIRS rating and bench-marking, which can allow investors to understand relative performance. There are many challenges on going all out on this path for various reasons.
- IRIS metrics or indicators are limited and mostly output oriented. Do not always from context-specific to core impact with a higher level of specificity.
- B Impact Assessment is a good tool to understand the relative company's governance, environmental, and social policies; it cannot understand the company's real social change. It would be best to have a more comprehensive tool like SoPact Impact Cloud.
- GIIRS rating provides a bench-marking; most investors find it difficult as it doesn't allow them to understand a true social impact or outcome
GOAL 1: No Poverty
|Goals and targets (from the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development)||Indicators||UNSD Indicator Codes†|
|Goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere|
|1.1 By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day||1.1.1 Proportion of population below the international poverty line, by sex, age, employment status and geographical location (urban/rural)||C010101|
|1.2 By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions||1.2.1 Proportion of population living below the national poverty line, by sex and age||C010201|
|1.2.2 Proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions||C010202|
|1.3 Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable||1.3.1 Proportion of population covered by social protection floors/systems, by sex, distinguishing children, unemployed persons, older persons, persons with disabilities, pregnant women, newborns, work-injury victims and the poor and the vulnerable||C010301|
|1.4 By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial services, including microfinance||1.4.1 Proportion of population living in households with access to basic services||C010401|
|1.4.2 Proportion of total adult population with secure tenure rights to land, (a) with legally recognized documentation, and (b) who perceive their rights to land as secure, by sex and type of tenure||C010402|
|1.5 By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters||1.5.1 Number of deaths, missing persons and directly affected persons attributed to disasters per 100,000 population||C200303|
|1.5.2 Direct economic loss attributed to disasters in relation to global gross domestic product (GDP)||C010502|
|1.5.3 Number of countries that adopt and implement national disaster risk reduction strategies in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030||C200304|
|1.5.4 Proportion of local governments that adopt and implement local disaster risk reduction strategies in line with national disaster risk reduction strategies||C200305|
|1.a Ensure significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources, including through enhanced development cooperation, in order to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, to implement programmes and policies to end poverty in all its dimensions||1.a.1 Proportion of domestically generated resources allocated by the government directly to poverty reduction programmes||C010a01|
|1.a.2 Proportion of total government spending on essential services (education, health and social protection)||C010a02|
|1.a.3 Sum of total grants and non-debt-creating inflows directly allocated to poverty reduction programmes as a proportion of GDP||C010a03|
|1.b Create sound policy frameworks at the national, regional and international levels, based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive development strategies, to support accelerated investment in poverty eradication actions||1.b.1 Proportion of government recurrent and capital spending to sectors that disproportionately benefit women, the poor and vulnerable groups||C010b01|
GOAL 2: Zero Hunger
|Goal 2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture|
|2.1 By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round||2.1.1 Prevalence of undernourishment||C020101|
|2.1.2 Prevalence of moderate or severe food insecurity in the population, based on the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES)||C020102|
|2.2 By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by 2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons||2.2.1 Prevalence of stunting (height for age <-2 standard deviation from the median of the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards) among children under 5 years of age||C020201|
|2.2.2 Prevalence of malnutrition (weight for height >+2 or <-2 standard deviation from the median of the WHO Child Growth Standards) among children under 5 years of age, by type (wasting and overweight)||C020202|
|2.3 By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment||2.3.1 Volume of production per labour unit by classes of farming/pastoral/forestry enterprise size||C020301|
|2.3.2 Average income of small-scale food producers, by sex and indigenous status||C020302|
|2.4 By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality||2.4.1 Proportion of agricultural area under productive and sustainable agriculture||C020401|
|2.5 By 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and promote access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as internationally agreed||2.5.1 Number of plant and animal genetic resources for food and agriculture secured in either medium- or long-term conservation facilities||C020501|
|2.5.2 Proportion of local breeds classified as being at risk, not at risk or at unknown level of risk of extinction||C020502|
|2.a Increase investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development and plant and livestock gene banks in order to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing countries, in particular least developed countries||2.a.1 The agriculture orientation index for government expenditures||C020a01|
|2.a.2 Total official flows (official development assistance plus other official flows) to the agriculture sector||C020a02|
|2.b Correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets, including through the parallel elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and all export measures with equivalent effect, in accordance with the mandate of the Doha Development Round||2.b.1 Agricultural export subsidies||C020b02|
|2.c Adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity markets and their derivatives and facilitate timely access to market information, including on food reserves, in order to help limit extreme food price volatility||2.c.1 Indicator of food price anomalies||C020c01|
GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being
|Goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages|
|3.1 By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births||3.1.1 Maternal mortality ratio||C030101|
|3.1.2 Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel||C030102|
|3.2 By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1,000 live births and under‑5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births||3.2.1 Under‑5 mortality rate||C030201|
|3.2.2 Neonatal mortality rate||C030202|
|3.3 By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases||3.3.1 Number of new HIV infections per 1,000 uninfected population, by sex, age and key populations||C030301|
|3.3.2 Tuberculosis incidence per 100,000 population||C030302|
|3.3.3 Malaria incidence per 1,000 population||C030303|
|3.3.4 Hepatitis B incidence per 100,000 population||C030304|
|3.3.5 Number of people requiring interventions against neglected tropical diseases||C030305|
|3.4 By 2030, reduce by one third premature mortality from non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-being||3.4.1 Mortality rate attributed to cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes or chronic respiratory disease||C030401|
|3.4.2 Suicide mortality rate||C030402|
|3.5 Strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol||3.5.1 Coverage of treatment interventions (pharmacological, psychosocial and rehabilitation and aftercare services) for substance use disorders||C030501|
|3.5.2 Harmful use of alcohol, defined according to the national context as alcohol per capita consumption (aged 15 years and older) within a calendar year in litres of pure alcohol||C030502|
|3.6 By 2020, halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents||3.6.1 Death rate due to road traffic injuries||C030601|
|3.7 By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes||3.7.1 Proportion of women of reproductive age (aged 15–49 years) who have their need for family planning satisfied with modern methods||C030701|
|3.7.2 Adolescent birth rate (aged 10–14 years; aged 15–19 years) per 1,000 women in that age group||C030702|
|3.8 Achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all||3.8.1 Coverage of essential health services (defined as the average coverage of essential services based on tracer interventions that include reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health, infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases and service capacity and access, among the general and the most disadvantaged population)||C030801|
|3.8.2 Proportion of population with large household expenditures on health as a share of total household expenditure or income||C030802|
|3.9 By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination||3.9.1 Mortality rate attributed to household and ambient air pollution||C030901|
|3.9.2 Mortality rate attributed to unsafe water, unsafe sanitation and lack of hygiene (exposure to unsafe Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for All (WASH) services)||C030902|
|3.9.3 Mortality rate attributed to unintentional poisoning||C030903|
|3.a Strengthen the implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in all countries, as appropriate||3.a.1 Age-standardized prevalence of current tobacco use among persons aged 15 years and older||C030a01|
|3.b Support the research and development of vaccines and medicines for the communicable and non‑communicable diseases that primarily affect developing countries, provide access to affordable essential medicines and vaccines, in accordance with the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, which affirms the right of developing countries to use to the full the provisions in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights regarding flexibilities to protect public health, and, in particular, provide access to medicines for all||3.b.1 Proportion of the target population covered by all vaccines included in their national programme||C030b01|
|3.b.2 Total net official development assistance to medical research and basic health sectors||C030b02|
|3.b.3 Proportion of health facilities that have a core set of relevant essential medicines available and affordable on a sustainable basis||C030b03|
|3.c Substantially increase health financing and the recruitment, development, training and retention of the health workforce in developing countries, especially in least developed countries and small island developing States||3.c.1 Health worker density and distribution||C030c01|
|3.d Strengthen the capacity of all countries, in particular developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction and management of national and global health risks||3.d.1 International Health Regulations (IHR) capacity and health emergency preparedness||C030d01|
GOAL 4: Quality Education
|Goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all|
|4.1 By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes||4.1.1 Proportion of children and young people (a) in grades 2/3; (b) at the end of primary; and (c) at the end of lower secondary achieving at least a minimum proficiency level in (i) reading and (ii) mathematics, by sex||C040101|
|4.2 By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and pre‑primary education so that they are ready for primary education||4.2.1 Proportion of children under 5 years of age who are developmentally on track in health, learning and psychosocial well-being, by sex||C040201|
|4.2.2 Participation rate in organized learning (one year before the official primary entry age), by sex||C040202|
|4.3 By 2030, ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university||4.3.1 Participation rate of youth and adults in formal and non-formal education and training in the previous 12 months, by sex||C040301|
|4.4 By 2030, substantially increase the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship||4.4.1 Proportion of youth and adults with information and communications technology (ICT) skills, by type of skill||C040401|
|4.5 By 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations||4.5.1 Parity indices (female/male, rural/urban, bottom/top wealth quintile and others such as disability status, indigenous peoples and conflict-affected, as data become available) for all education indicators on this list that can be disaggregated||C040501|
|4.6 By 2030, ensure that all youth and a substantial proportion of adults, both men and women, achieve literacy and numeracy||4.6.1 Proportion of population in a given age group achieving at least a fixed level of proficiency in functional (a) literacy and (b) numeracy skills, by sex||C040601|
|4.7 By 2030, ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including, among others, through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development||4.7.1 Extent to which (i) global citizenship education and (ii) education for sustainable development, including gender equality and human rights, are mainstreamed at all levels in (a) national education policies; (b) curricula; (c) teacher education; and (d) student assessment||C040701|
|4.a Build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, non-violent, inclusive and effective learning environments for all||4.a.1 Proportion of schools with access to (a) electricity; (b) the Internet for pedagogical purposes; (c) computers for pedagogical purposes; (d) adapted infrastructure and materials for students with disabilities; (e) basic drinking water; (f) single-sex basic sanitation facilities; and (g) basic handwashing facilities (as per the WASH indicator definitions)||C040a01|
|4.b By 2020, substantially expand globally the number of scholarships available to developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and African countries, for enrolment in higher education, including vocational training and information and communications technology, technical, engineering and scientific programmes, in developed countries and other developing countries||4.b.1 Volume of official development assistance flows for scholarships by sector and type of study||C040b01|
|4.c By 2030, substantially increase the supply of qualified teachers, including through international cooperation for teacher training in developing countries, especially least developed countries and small island developing States||4.c.1 Proportion of teachers in: (a) pre-primary; (b) primary; (c) lower secondary; and (d) upper secondary education who have received at least the minimum organized teacher training (e.g. pedagogical training) pre-service or in-service required for teaching at the relevant level in a given country||C040c01|
GOAL 5: Gender Equality
|Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls|
|5.1 End all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere||5.1.1 Whether or not legal frameworks are in place to promote, enforce and monitor equality and non‑discrimination on the basis of sex||C050101|
|5.2 Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation||5.2.1 Proportion of ever-partnered women and girls aged 15 years and older subjected to physical, sexual or psychological violence by a current or former intimate partner in the previous 12 months, by form of violence and by age||C050201|
|5.2.2 Proportion of women and girls aged 15 years and older subjected to sexual violence by persons other than an intimate partner in the previous 12 months, by age and place of occurrence||C050202|
|5.3 Eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation||5.3.1 Proportion of women aged 20–24 years who were married or in a union before age 15 and before age 18||C050301|
|5.3.2 Proportion of girls and women aged 15–49 years who have undergone female genital mutilation/cutting, by age||C050302|
|5.4 Recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work through the provision of public services, infrastructure and social protection policies and the promotion of shared responsibility within the household and the family as nationally appropriate||5.4.1 Proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic and care work, by sex, age and location||C050401|
|5.5 Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life||5.5.1 Proportion of seats held by women in (a) national parliaments and (b) local governments||C050501|
|5.5.2 Proportion of women in managerial positions||C050502|
|5.6 Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review conferences||5.6.1 Proportion of women aged 15–49 years who make their own informed decisions regarding sexual relations, contraceptive use and reproductive health care||C050601|
|5.6.2 Number of countries with laws and regulations that guarantee full and equal access to women and men aged 15 years and older to sexual and reproductive health care, information and education||C050602|
|5.a Undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance and natural resources, in accordance with national laws||5.a.1 (a) Proportion of total agricultural population with ownership or secure rights over agricultural land, by sex; and (b) share of women among owners or rights-bearers of agricultural land, by type of tenure||C050a01|
|5.a.2 Proportion of countries where the legal framework (including customary law) guarantees women’s equal rights to land ownership and/or control||C050a02|
|5.b Enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology, to promote the empowerment of women||5.b.1 Proportion of individuals who own a mobile telephone, by sex||C050b01|
|5.c Adopt and strengthen sound policies and enforceable legislation for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at all levels||5.c.1 Proportion of countries with systems to track and make public allocations for gender equality and women’s empowerment||C050c01|
GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation
|Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all|
|6.1 By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all||6.1.1 Proportion of population using safely managed drinking water services||C060101|
|6.2 By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations||6.2.1 Proportion of population using (a) safely managed sanitation services and (b) a hand-washing facility with soap and water||C060201|
|6.3 By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally||6.3.1 Proportion of wastewater safely treated||C060301|
|6.3.2 Proportion of bodies of water with good ambient water quality||C060302|
|6.4 By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity||6.4.1 Change in water-use efficiency over time||C060401|
|6.4.2 Level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources||C060402|
|6.5 By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate||6.5.1 Degree of integrated water resources management implementation (0–100)||C060501|
|6.5.2 Proportion of transboundary basin area with an operational arrangement for water cooperation||C060502|
|6.6 By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes||6.6.1 Change in the extent of water-related ecosystems over time||C060601|
|6.a By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies||6.a.1 Amount of water- and sanitation-related official development assistance that is part of a government-coordinated spending plan||C060a01|
|6.b Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management||6.b.1 Proportion of local administrative units with established and operational policies and procedures for participation of local communities in water and sanitation management||C060b01|
GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy
|7.1 By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services||7.1.1 Proportion of population with access to electricity||C070101|
|7.1.2 Proportion of population with primary reliance on clean fuels and technology||C070102|
|7.2 By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix||7.2.1 Renewable energy share in the total final energy consumption||C070201|
|7.3 By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency||7.3.1 Energy intensity measured in terms of primary energy and GDP||C070301|
|7.a By 2030, enhance international cooperation to facilitate access to clean energy research and technology, including renewable energy, energy efficiency and advanced and cleaner fossil-fuel technology, and promote investment in energy infrastructure and clean energy technology||7.a.1 International financial flows to developing countries in support of clean energy research and development and renewable energy production, including in hybrid systems||C070a01|
|7.b By 2030, expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for supplying modern and sustainable energy services for all in developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their respective programmes of support||7.b.1 Investments in energy efficiency as a proportion of GDP and the amount of foreign direct investment in financial transfer for infrastructure and technology to sustainable development services||C070b01|
GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth
|Goal 8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all|
|8.1 Sustain per capita economic growth in accordance with national circumstances and, in particular, at least 7 per cent gross domestic product growth per annum in the least developed countries||8.1.1 Annual growth rate of real GDP per capita||C080101|
|8.2 Achieve higher levels of economic productivity through diversification, technological upgrading and innovation, including through a focus on high-value added and labour-intensive sectors||8.2.1 Annual growth rate of real GDP per employed person||C080201|
|8.3 Promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and encourage the formalization and growth of micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises, including through access to financial services||8.3.1 Proportion of informal employment in non‑agriculture employment, by sex||C080301|
|8.4 Improve progressively, through 2030, global resource efficiency in consumption and production and endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation, in accordance with the 10‑Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production, with developed countries taking the lead||8.4.1 Material footprint, material footprint per capita, and material footprint per GDP||C200202|
|8.4.2 Domestic material consumption, domestic material consumption per capita, and domestic material consumption per GDP||C200203|
|8.5 By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value||8.5.1 Average hourly earnings of female and male employees, by occupation, age and persons with disabilities||C080501|
|8.5.2 Unemployment rate, by sex, age and persons with disabilities||C080502|
|8.6 By 2020, substantially reduce the proportion of youth not in employment, education or training||8.6.1 Proportion of youth (aged 15–24 years) not in education, employment or training||C080601|
|8.7 Take immediate and effective measures to eradicate forced labour, end modern slavery and human trafficking and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour, including recruitment and use of child soldiers, and by 2025 end child labour in all its forms||8.7.1 Proportion and number of children aged 5–17 years engaged in child labour, by sex and age||C080701|
|8.8 Protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments for all workers, including migrant workers, in particular women migrants, and those in precarious employment||8.8.1 Frequency rates of fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries, by sex and migrant status||C080801|
|8.8.2 Level of national compliance with labour rights (freedom of association and collective bargaining) based on International Labour Organization (ILO) textual sources and national legislation, by sex and migrant status||C080802|
|8.9 By 2030, devise and implement policies to promote sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products||8.9.1 Tourism direct GDP as a proportion of total GDP and in growth rate||C080901|
|8.9.2 Proportion of jobs in sustainable tourism industries out of total tourism jobs||C080902|
|8.10 Strengthen the capacity of domestic financial institutions to encourage and expand access to banking, insurance and financial services for all||8.10.1 (a) Number of commercial bank branches per 100,000 adults and (b) number of automated teller machines (ATMs) per 100,000 adults||C081001|
|8.10.2 Proportion of adults (15 years and older) with an account at a bank or other financial institution or with a mobile-money-service provider||C081002|
|8.a Increase Aid for Trade support for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, including through the Enhanced Integrated Framework for Trade-related Technical Assistance to Least Developed Countries||8.a.1 Aid for Trade commitments and disbursements||C080a01|
|8.b By 2020, develop and operationalize a global strategy for youth employment and implement the Global Jobs Pact of the International Labour Organization||8.b.1 Existence of a developed and operationalized national strategy for youth employment, as a distinct strategy or as part of a national employment strategy||C080b01|
GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
|Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation|
|9.1 Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and transborder infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all||9.1.1 Proportion of the rural population who live within 2 km of an all-season road||C090101|
|9.1.2 Passenger and freight volumes, by mode of transport||C090102|
|9.2 Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by 2030, significantly raise industry’s share of employment and gross domestic product, in line with national circumstances, and double its share in least developed countries||9.2.1 Manufacturing value added as a proportion of GDP and per capita||C090201|
|9.2.2 Manufacturing employment as a proportion of total employment||C090202|
|9.3 Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises, in particular in developing countries, to financial services, including affordable credit, and their integration into value chains and markets||9.3.1 Proportion of small-scale industries in total industry value added||C090301|
|9.3.2 Proportion of small-scale industries with a loan or line of credit||C090302|
|9.4 By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities||9.4.1 CO2 emission per unit of value added||C090401|
|9.5 Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending||9.5.1 Research and development expenditure as a proportion of GDP||C090501|
|9.5.2 Researchers (in full-time equivalent) per million inhabitants||C090502|
|9.a Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and technical support to African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States||9.a.1 Total official international support (official development assistance plus other official flows) to infrastructure||C090a01|
|9.b Support domestic technology development, research and innovation in developing countries, including by ensuring a conducive policy environment for, inter alia, industrial diversification and value addition to commodities||9.b.1 Proportion of medium and high-tech industry value added in total value added||C090b01|
|9.c Significantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet in least developed countries by 2020||9.c.1 Proportion of population covered by a mobile network, by technology||C090c01|
GOAL 10: Reduced Inequality
|Goal 10. Reduce inequality within and among countries|
|10.1 By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national average||10.1.1 Growth rates of household expenditure or income per capita among the bottom 40 per cent of the population and the total population||C100101|
|10.2 By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status||10.2.1 Proportion of people living below 50 per cent of median income, by sex, age and persons with disabilities||C100201|
|10.3 Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard||10.3.1 Proportion of population reporting having personally felt discriminated against or harassed in the previous 12 months on the basis of a ground of discrimination prohibited under international human rights law||C200204|
|10.4 Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality||10.4.1 Labour share of GDP, comprising wages and social protection transfers||C100401|
|10.5 Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen the implementation of such regulations||10.5.1 Financial Soundness Indicators||C100501|
|10.6 Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing countries in decision-making in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions||10.6.1 Proportion of members and voting rights of developing countries in international organizations||C200205|
|10.7 Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies||10.7.1 Recruitment cost borne by employee as a proportion of yearly income earned in country of destination||C100701|
|10.7.2 Number of countries that have implemented well-managed migration policies||C100702|
|10.a Implement the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, in accordance with World Trade Organization agreements||10.a.1 Proportion of tariff lines applied to imports from least developed countries and developing countries with zero-tariff||C100a01|
|10.b Encourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to States where the need is greatest, in particular least developed countries, African countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their national plans and programmes||10.b.1 Total resource flows for development, by recipient and donor countries and type of flow (e.g. official development assistance, foreign direct investment and other flows)||C100b01|
|10.c By 2030, reduce to less than 3 per cent the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than 5 per cent||10.c.1 Remittance costs as a proportion of the amount remitted||C100c01|
GOAL 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities
|Goal 11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable|
|11.1 By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums||11.1.1 Proportion of urban population living in slums, informal settlements or inadequate housing||C110101|
|11.2 By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons||11.2.1 Proportion of population that has convenient access to public transport, by sex, age and persons with disabilities||C110201|
|11.3 By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries||11.3.1 Ratio of land consumption rate to population growth rate||C110301|
|11.3.2 Proportion of cities with a direct participation structure of civil society in urban planning and management that operate regularly and democratically||C110302|
|11.4 Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage||11.4.1 Total expenditure (public and private) per capita spent on the preservation, protection and conservation of all cultural and natural heritage, by type of heritage (cultural, natural, mixed and World Heritage Centre designation), level of government (national, regional and local/municipal), type of expenditure (operating expenditure/investment) and type of private funding (donations in kind, private non-profit sector and sponsorship)||C110401|
|11.5 By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations||11.5.1 Number of deaths, missing persons and directly affected persons attributed to disasters per 100,000 population||C200303|
|11.5.2 Direct economic loss in relation to global GDP, damage to critical infrastructure and number of disruptions to basic services, attributed to disasters||C110502|
|11.6 By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management||11.6.1 Proportion of urban solid waste regularly collected and with adequate final discharge out of total urban solid waste generated, by cities||C110601|
|11.6.2 Annual mean levels of fine particulate matter (e.g. PM2.5 and PM10) in cities (population weighted)||C110602|
|11.7 By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities||11.7.1 Average share of the built-up area of cities that is open space for public use for all, by sex, age and persons with disabilities||C110701|
|11.7.2 Proportion of persons victim of physical or sexual harassment, by sex, age, disability status and place of occurrence, in the previous 12 months||C110702|
|11.a Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning||11.a.1 Proportion of population living in cities that implement urban and regional development plans integrating population projections and resource needs, by size of city||C110a01|
|11.b By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels||11.b.1 Number of countries that adopt and implement national disaster risk reduction strategies in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030||C200304|
|11.b.2 Proportion of local governments that adopt and implement local disaster risk reduction strategies in line with national disaster risk reduction strategies||C200305|
|11.c Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials||11.c.1 Proportion of financial support to the least developed countries that is allocated to the construction and retrofitting of sustainable, resilient and resource-efficient buildings utilizing local materials||C110c01|
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GOAL 12: Responsible Consumption and Production
|Goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns|
|12.1 Implement the 10‑Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns, all countries taking action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries||12.1.1 Number of countries with sustainable consumption and production (SCP) national action plans or SCP mainstreamed as a priority or a target into national policies||C120101|
|12.2 By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources||12.2.1 Material footprint, material footprint per capita, and material footprint per GDP||C200202|
|12.2.2 Domestic material consumption, domestic material consumption per capita, and domestic material consumption per GDP||C200203|
|12.3 By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses||12.3.1 Global food loss index||C120301|
|12.4 By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment||12.4.1 Number of parties to international multilateral environmental agreements on hazardous waste, and other chemicals that meet their commitments and obligations in transmitting information as required by each relevant agreement||C120401|
|12.4.2 Hazardous waste generated per capita and proportion of hazardous waste treated, by type of treatment||C120402|
|12.5 By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse||12.5.1 National recycling rate, tons of material recycled||C120501|
|12.6 Encourage companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle||12.6.1 Number of companies publishing sustainability reports||C120601|
|12.7 Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities||12.7.1 Number of countries implementing sustainable public procurement policies and action plans||C120701|
|12.8 By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature||12.8.1 Extent to which (i) global citizenship education and (ii) education for sustainable development (including climate change education) are mainstreamed in (a) national education policies; (b) curricula; (c) teacher education; and (d) student assessment||C120801|
|12.a Support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production||12.a.1 Amount of support to developing countries on research and development for sustainable consumption and production and environmentally sound technologies||C120a01|
|12.b Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products||12.b.1 Number of sustainable tourism strategies or policies and implemented action plans with agreed monitoring and evaluation tools||C120b01|
|12.c Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities||12.c.1 Amount of fossil-fuel subsidies per unit of GDP (production and consumption) and as a proportion of total national expenditure on fossil fuels||C120c01|
GOAL 13: Climate Action
|Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts2|
|13.1 Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries||13.1.1 Number of deaths, missing persons and directly affected persons attributed to disasters per 100,000 population||C200303|
|13.1.2 Number of countries that adopt and implement national disaster risk reduction strategies in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030||C200304|
|13.1.3 Proportion of local governments that adopt and implement local disaster risk reduction strategies in line with national disaster risk reduction strategies||C200305|
|13.2 Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning||13.2.1 Number of countries that have communicated the establishment or operationalization of an integrated policy/strategy/plan which increases their ability to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change, and foster climate resilience and low greenhouse gas emissions development in a manner that does not threaten food production (including a national adaptation plan, nationally determined contribution, national communication, biennial update report or other)||C130201|
|13.3 Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning||13.3.1 Number of countries that have integrated mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning into primary, secondary and tertiary curricula||C130301|
|13.3.2 Number of countries that have communicated the strengthening of institutional, systemic and individual capacity-building to implement adaptation, mitigation and technology transfer, and development actions||C130302|
|13.a Implement the commitment undertaken by developed-country parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to a goal of mobilizing jointly $100 billion annually by 2020 from all sources to address the needs of developing countries in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation and fully operationalize the Green Climate Fund through its capitalization as soon as possible||13.a.1 Mobilized amount of United States dollars per year between 2020 and 2025 accountable towards the $100 billion commitment||C130a01|
|13.b Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change-related planning and management in least developed countries and small island developing States, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalized communities||13.b.1 Number of least developed countries and small island developing States that are receiving specialized support, and amount of support, including finance, technology and capacity-building, for mechanisms for raising capacities for effective climate change-related planning and management, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalized communities||C130b01|
GOAL 14: Life Below Water
|Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development|
|14.1 By 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, in particular from land-based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution||14.1.1 Index of coastal eutrophication and floating plastic debris density||C140101|
|14.2 By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans||14.2.1 Proportion of national exclusive economic zones managed using ecosystem-based approaches||C140201|
|14.3 Minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels||14.3.1 Average marine acidity (pH) measured at agreed suite of representative sampling stations||C140301|
|14.4 By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics||14.4.1 Proportion of fish stocks within biologically sustainable levels||C140401|
|14.5 By 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information||14.5.1 Coverage of protected areas in relation to marine areas||C140501|
|14.6 By 2020, prohibit certain forms of fisheries subsidies which contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, eliminate subsidies that contribute to illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and refrain from introducing new such subsidies, recognizing that appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing and least developed countries should be an integral part of the World Trade Organization fisheries subsidies negotiation3||14.6.1 Progress by countries in the degree of implementation of international instruments aiming to combat illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing||C140601|
|14.7 By 2030, increase the economic benefits to small island developing States and least developed countries from the sustainable use of marine resources, including through sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism||14.7.1 Sustainable fisheries as a proportion of GDP in small island developing States, least developed countries and all countries||C140701|
|14.a Increase scientific knowledge, develop research capacity and transfer marine technology, taking into account the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Criteria and Guidelines on the Transfer of Marine Technology, in order to improve ocean health and to enhance the contribution of marine biodiversity to the development of developing countries, in particular small island developing States and least developed countries||14.a.1 Proportion of total research budget allocated to research in the field of marine technology||C140a01|
|14.b Provide access for small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets||14.b.1 Progress by countries in the degree of application of a legal/regulatory/policy/institutional framework which recognizes and protects access rights for small-scale fisheries||C140b01|
|14.c Enhance the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources by implementing international law as reflected in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, which provides the legal framework for the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources, as recalled in paragraph 158 of “The future we want”||14.c.1 Number of countries making progress in ratifying, accepting and implementing through legal, policy and institutional frameworks, ocean-related instruments that implement international law, as reflected in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, for the conservation and sustainable use of the oceans and their resources||C140c01|
GOAL 15: Life on Land
|Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss|
|15.1 By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements||15.1.1 Forest area as a proportion of total land area||C150101|
|15.1.2 Proportion of important sites for terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity that are covered by protected areas, by ecosystem type||C150102|
|15.2 By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally||15.2.1 Progress towards sustainable forest management||C150201|
|15.3 By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world||15.3.1 Proportion of land that is degraded over total land area||C150301|
|15.4 By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development||15.4.1 Coverage by protected areas of important sites for mountain biodiversity||C150401|
|15.4.2 Mountain Green Cover Index||C150402|
|15.5 Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species||15.5.1 Red List Index||C150501|
|15.6 Promote fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and promote appropriate access to such resources, as internationally agreed||15.6.1 Number of countries that have adopted legislative, administrative and policy frameworks to ensure fair and equitable sharing of benefits||C150601|
|15.7 Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products||15.7.1 Proportion of traded wildlife that was poached or illicitly trafficked||C200206|
|15.8 By 2020, introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species||15.8.1 Proportion of countries adopting relevant national legislation and adequately resourcing the prevention or control of invasive alien species||C150801|
|15.9 By 2020, integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes, poverty reduction strategies and accounts||15.9.1 Progress towards national targets established in accordance with Aichi Biodiversity Target 2 of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020||C150901|
|15.a Mobilize and significantly increase financial resources from all sources to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems||15.a.1 Official development assistance and public expenditure on conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystems||C200207|
|15.b Mobilize significant resources from all sources and at all levels to finance sustainable forest management and provide adequate incentives to developing countries to advance such management, including for conservation and reforestation||15.b.1 Official development assistance and public expenditure on conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystems||C200207|
|15.c Enhance global support for efforts to combat poaching and trafficking of protected species, including by increasing the capacity of local communities to pursue sustainable livelihood opportunities||15.c.1 Proportion of traded wildlife that was poached or illicitly trafficked||C200206|
GOAL 16: Peace and Justice Strong Institutions
|Goal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels|
|16.1 Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere||16.1.1 Number of victims of intentional homicide per 100,000 population, by sex and age||C160101|
|16.1.2 Conflict-related deaths per 100,000 population, by sex, age and cause||C160102|
|16.1.3 Proportion of population subjected to (a) physical violence, (b) psychological violence and (c) sexual violence in the previous 12 months||C160103|
|16.1.4 Proportion of population that feel safe walking alone around the area they live||C160104|
|16.2 End abuse, exploitation, trafficking and all forms of violence against and torture of children||16.2.1 Proportion of children aged 1–17 years who experienced any physical punishment and/or psychological aggression by caregivers in the past month||C160201|
|16.2.2 Number of victims of human trafficking per 100,000 population, by sex, age and form of exploitation||C160202|
|16.2.3 Proportion of young women and men aged 18–29 years who experienced sexual violence by age 18||C160203|
|16.3 Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all||16.3.1 Proportion of victims of violence in the previous 12 months who reported their victimization to competent authorities or other officially recognized conflict resolution mechanisms||C160301|
|16.3.2 Unsentenced detainees as a proportion of overall prison population||C160302|
|16.4 By 2030, significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows, strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets and combat all forms of organized crime||16.4.1 Total value of inward and outward illicit financial flows (in current United States dollars)||C160401|
|16.4.2 Proportion of seized, found or surrendered arms whose illicit origin or context has been traced or established by a competent authority in line with international instruments||C160402|
|16.5 Substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms||16.5.1 Proportion of persons who had at least one contact with a public official and who paid a bribe to a public official, or were asked for a bribe by those public officials, during the previous 12 months||C160501|
|16.5.2 Proportion of businesses that had at least one contact with a public official and that paid a bribe to a public official, or were asked for a bribe by those public officials during the previous 12 months||C160502|
|16.6 Develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels||16.6.1 Primary government expenditures as a proportion of original approved budget, by sector (or by budget codes or similar)||C160601|
|16.6.2 Proportion of population satisfied with their last experience of public services||C160602|
|16.7 Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels||16.7.1 Proportions of positions (by sex, age, persons with disabilities and population groups) in public institutions (national and local legislatures, public service, and judiciary) compared to national distributions||C160701|
|16.7.2 Proportion of population who believe decision-making is inclusive and responsive, by sex, age, disability and population group||C160702|
|16.8 Broaden and strengthen the participation of developing countries in the institutions of global governance||16.8.1 Proportion of members and voting rights of developing countries in international organizations||C200205|
|16.9 By 2030, provide legal identity for all, including birth registration||16.9.1 Proportion of children under 5 years of age whose births have been registered with a civil authority, by age||C160901|
|16.10 Ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms, in accordance with national legislation and international agreements||16.10.1 Number of verified cases of killing, kidnapping, enforced disappearance, arbitrary detention and torture of journalists, associated media personnel, trade unionists and human rights advocates in the previous 12 months||C161001|
|16.10.2 Number of countries that adopt and implement constitutional, statutory and/or policy guarantees for public access to information||C161002|
|16.a Strengthen relevant national institutions, including through international cooperation, for building capacity at all levels, in particular in developing countries, to prevent violence and combat terrorism and crime||16.a.1 Existence of independent national human rights institutions in compliance with the Paris Principles||C160a01|
|16.b Promote and enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies for sustainable development||16.b.1 Proportion of population reporting having personally felt discriminated against or harassed in the previous 12 months on the basis of a ground of discrimination prohibited under international human rights law||C200204|
GOAL 17: Partnerships to achieve the Goal
|Goal 17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development|
|17.1 Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to developing countries, to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection||17.1.1 Total government revenue as a proportion of GDP, by source||C170101|
|17.1.2 Proportion of domestic budget funded by domestic taxes||C170102|
|17.2 Developed countries to implement fully their official development assistance commitments, including the commitment by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent of gross national income for official development assistance (ODA/GNI) to developing countries and 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries; ODA providers are encouraged to consider setting a target to provide at least 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries||17.2.1 Net official development assistance, total and to least developed countries, as a proportion of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Development Assistance Committee donors’ gross national income (GNI)||C170201|
|17.3 Mobilize additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources||17.3.1 Foreign direct investment (FDI), official development assistance and South-South cooperation as a proportion of total domestic budget||C170301|
|17.3.2 Volume of remittances (in United States dollars) as a proportion of total GDP||C170302|
|17.4 Assist developing countries in attaining long-term debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt financing, debt relief and debt restructuring, as appropriate, and address the external debt of highly indebted poor countries to reduce debt distress||17.4.1 Debt service as a proportion of exports of goods and services||C170401|
|17.5 Adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countries||17.5.1 Number of countries that adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countries||C170501|
|17.6 Enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation and enhance knowledge-sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, in particular at the United Nations level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism||17.6.1 Number of science and/or technology cooperation agreements and programmes between countries, by type of cooperation||C170601|
|17.6.2 Fixed Internet broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants, by speed||C170602|
|17.7 Promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed||17.7.1 Total amount of approved funding for developing countries to promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies||C170701|
|17.8 Fully operationalize the technology bank and science, technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology||17.8.1 Proportion of individuals using the Internet||C170801|
|17.9 Enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity-building in developing countries to support national plans to implement all the Sustainable Development Goals, including through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation||17.9.1 Dollar value of financial and technical assistance (including through North-South, South‑South and triangular cooperation) committed to developing countries||C170901|
|17.10 Promote a universal, rules-based, open, non‑discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system under the World Trade Organization, including through the conclusion of negotiations under its Doha Development Agenda||17.10.1 Worldwide weighted tariff-average||C171001|
|17.11 Significantly increase the exports of developing countries, in particular with a view to doubling the least developed countries’ share of global exports by 2020||17.11.1 Developing countries’ and least developed countries’ share of global exports||C171101|
|17.12 Realize timely implementation of duty-free and quota-free market access on a lasting basis for all least developed countries, consistent with World Trade Organization decisions, including by ensuring that preferential rules of origin applicable to imports from least developed countries are transparent and simple, and contribute to facilitating market access||17.12.1 Average tariffs faced by developing countries, least developed countries and small island developing States||C171201|
|Policy and institutional coherence|
|17.13 Enhance global macroeconomic stability, including through policy coordination and policy coherence||17.13.1 Macroeconomic Dashboard||C171301|
|17.14 Enhance policy coherence for sustainable development||17.14.1 Number of countries with mechanisms in place to enhance policy coherence of sustainable development||C171401|
|17.15 Respect each country’s policy space and leadership to establish and implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable development||17.15.1 Extent of use of country-owned results frameworks and planning tools by providers of development cooperation||C171501|
|17.16 Enhance the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development, complemented by multi-stakeholder partnerships that mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources, to support the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals in all countries, in particular developing countries||17.16.1 Number of countries reporting progress in multi-stakeholder development effectiveness monitoring frameworks that support the achievement of the sustainable development goals||C171601|
|17.17 Encourage and promote effective public, public-private and civil society partnerships, building on the experience and resourcing strategies of partnerships||17.17.1 Amount of United States dollars committed to (a) public-private partnerships and (b) civil society partnerships||C171701|
|Data, monitoring and accountability|
|17.18 By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts||17.18.1 Proportion of sustainable development indicators produced at the national level with full disaggregation when relevant to the target, in accordance with the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics||C171801|
|17.18.2 Number of countries that have national statistical legislation that complies with the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics||C171802|
|17.18.3 Number of countries with a national statistical plan that is fully funded and under implementation, by source of funding||C171803|
|17.19 By 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement gross domestic product, and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries||17.19.1 Dollar value of all resources made available to strengthen statistical capacity in developing countries||C171901|
|17.19.2 Proportion of countries that (a) have conducted at least one population and housing census in the last 10 years; and (b) have achieved 100 per cent birth registration and 80 per cent death registration||C171902|
AVOIDING SDG WASHING
Join us in an inspirational conversation with Ben Carpenter, CEO of Social Value International at (SVI) Social Value International. SVI is a network of networks, united by a shared mission to change the way the world accounts for value.
The UN's Sustainable Development Goals Report from 2017 cites that "the rate of progress in many areas is far slower than needed to meet the targets by 2030," flagging the urgency to accelerate action. While working hard towards achieving global goals, how can we prevent over-claiming?