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Streamline Program Planning with Sopact's Logic Model App

Logic Model

Get started on creating a comprehensive and actionable plan for your program using Sopact's user-friendly Logic Model app

What is Logic Model?

A logic model is a graphical representation of the relationships among a program or intervention's resources, the activities it conducts, and the outcomes it seeks to achieve. It is a tool that helps program planners, evaluators, and stakeholders to understand and communicate the logic behind a program or intervention.

Logic models are often used in program evaluation, where they can be used to document the theory of change behind a program, map out the program's components and activities, and track the program's progress over time.

Here is an example of a simple logic model:

Inputs:

  • Funding
  • Staff Resources
  • Program materials

Activities:

  • Training workshops
  • Outreach and marketing
  • Case management

Outputs:

  • Number of participants trained
  • Number of outreach events held
  • Number of cases managed

Outcomes:

  • Increased knowledge and skills among participants
  • Improved access to services
  • Improved health outcomes

In this example, the inputs are the resources the program has available to it, the activities are the things that the program does with those resources, the outputs are the direct results of those activities, and the outcomes are the longer-term impacts of the program. The logic model helps illustrate how the program's activities are intended to achieve the desired outcomes.

How does the Logic Model help you?

here are several ways in which a logic model can be helpful:

  • Planning: A logic model can be useful for planning and designing a program or intervention. It helps program planners to identify the resources they will need, the activities they will conduct, and the outcomes they hope to achieve.

  • Communication: A logic model can communicate the logic behind a program or intervention to stakeholders, such as funders, partners, and community members. It can help to clarify the program's goals and objectives and show how the program is intended to achieve its intended outcomes.

  • Evaluation: A logic model can be used to guide the evaluation of a program or intervention. It can help evaluators to identify the appropriate indicators and data sources for measuring progress and impact and tracking the program's performance over time.

  • Continuous improvement: A logic model can be a valuable tool for continuous improvement by helping program staff to identify areas of the program that are working well and areas that may need to be modified or improved. It can also help to identify any unintended consequences of the program.

Overall, a logic model can be a valuable tool for understanding and improving the effectiveness of a program or intervention.

Free

Logic Model Training

The theory of change is the foundation for understanding the social impact of programs, products, or services. 

  1. Introduction to the logic model [7 min]
  2. Optimize logic model  (Real-world case studies) [60 min]

Logic Model vs Theory Of Change

A logic model is a visual representation of the relationships among a program or intervention's resources, its activities, and the outcomes it seeks to achieve. It is a tool that helps program planners, evaluators, and stakeholders to understand and communicate the logic behind a program or intervention.

On the other hand, a theory of change is a detailed explanation of the logic behind a program or intervention. It explains the program's assumptions and underlying logic and outlines the steps it takes to achieve its desired outcomes.

While a logic model and a theory of change are similar in that they help explain the logic behind a program or intervention, they differ in their level of detail and complexity. A logic model is typically a more concise and visual representation of the program's logic, while a theory of change is a more detailed and written explanation.

Using a logic model and a theory of change can be helpful in several ways. First, the logic model can provide a visual representation of the program's logic that is easy to understand and communicate to stakeholders. In contrast, the theory of change can give a more detailed and in-depth explanation of the program's logic. Together, these tools can help program planners, evaluators, and stakeholders better understand the program and its intended impacts and track its progress over time.

In general, a logic model and a theory of change communicate how change is expected to be created. A logic model usually focuses on a specific program or intervention, mapping in a linear way how the inputs, activities, etc., lead to expected outputs and outcomes. It will contain fewer contextual elements (for example, the problem being addressed) than a Theory of Change model.

In short, they both show how an intervention will create impact results. The differences are to what extent and where they focus.

Here are some of the key differences:

  • A Theory of Change is used at the design and evaluation stages, while a logic model will be used for monitoring.
  • A Theory of Change is usually presented as a diagram and accompanied by a narrative. Simultaneously, a logic model usually stands independently (without a report) and tends to be a much more linear (while still diagrammatic) presentation.
  • A Theory of Change will sometimes include information about the problem's broader context. Simultaneously, a logic model maps a program's activities (from outputs to outcomes).

With all this said, there is no utterly standardized definition of one or the other, and many organizations use the terms interchangeably.

This image from Tools4Dev visually demonstrates some of the critical differences mentioned above.

theory of change vs logic model

 

 

 

 

 

Logic Model components

  • 01 Inputs
  • 02 Activities
  • 03 Outputs
  • 04 Impact
  • 05 Outcomes
Inputs refer to the resources or investments needed to ensure that the activities take place. According to our example, we need quality course materials, skilled trainers, a physical venue, or an online host, investment, and more.
In this step, we answer the question “what activities need to take place for each output to happen?”

Providing people with high-quality training is one of the activities directly aligned with our sample output and outcome. Along with quality skill-building training, an activity can also include resume preparation or interview preparation. All of these increase the number of successful placement possibilities.
The outputs are the immediate results of our activities or products, and they are necessary for achieving the outcomes. Think of them as positive indicators that the outcomes are on track. 

As per our Skills Development example, one output could be the “increase in the number of people graduating from our business training”. In this case, we are assuming that as more and more people go through quality marketable training, there is a greater possibility of an increase in successful job placements. To dig deeper, collecting some demographic data, along with service data can help to draw useful connections.

The impact is the systemic change that you expect to see in the long-term. Impact usually takes a few years to happen, which makes it difficult to measure, but it does give us a great foundation to define the outcomes which are within our reach to influence and measure. 

Outcomes are the intended and unintended changes that your stakeholders are experiencing or might experience with your intervention. In other words, outcomes are the broader benefits we work to achieve. In our Skills Development example, one outcome could be “increasing job placement”. How do we know that we are increasing job placement? - By keeping an eye on the number of people placed and retained after their onboarding training.

A well-designed Theory of Change should include long term outcomes, mid term outcomes, and short-term outcomes. As you demonstrate a clear improvement in your outcomes, you are more likely to get other players such as government or public and private partners to step in to help you scale your mission.

Good outcome measurement requires designing a stakeholder survey that includes baseline, mid-line, and exit line results.

Best Practices

Logic model framework

Listen to the above webinar from Upaya Social Venture for a more in-depth understanding

1. Be systematic

A well-thought-out logic model can help you systematically break down your intervention and think through the cause and effect of what your organization does.

Logic model design

A sample logic model template

2. Associate Metrics

Quantitative metrics give organizations an idea of whether or not they’re on track toward their mission. To track new job creation, for instance, Upaya records how many new jobs each company in our portfolio creates each quarter.

To track progress out of poverty, however, we measure the increase in income that this new job provides and then observe what it helps the person: improve the condition of their house. Eat more food? Purchase more assets? Send their children to school?

output vs outcome

Upaya’s logic model includes outputs and outcomes measured using quantitative metrics.

 
 

3. Measure the depth of impact

For Upaya, we must do more than just count the number of jobs created and assess whether the jobs are changing. These jobs must pay fairly, pay well, be dignified, and move people out of poverty.

We conduct regular surveys with the individuals who receive these jobs to measure the extent to which the positions and increased income are having the desired impact.

Upaya asks jobholders what their newly increased income will help them achieve to understand the impact the jobs are having on their lives.

Upaya asks jobholders what their newly increased income will help them achieve to understand the impact the jobs are having on their lives.

 

How to create a logic model

Learn from detailed Upaya Social Venture use case

Upaya Social Ventures is a Seattle-based impact fund. Their mission is to create dignified jobs and eradicate extreme poverty. Their work most closely aligns with SDG 1 & SDG 8. Let's dive deeper into the logic model and metrics they use to measure decent wages, economic growth, and the eradication of extreme poverty.

It is a thought-provoking and expert video that every impact practitioner should watch.

As Sachi Shenoy, founder of Upaya Ventures, says, "The first question everyone asks is, how do you create jobs?"

Upaya creates jobs by supporting entrepreneurs building businesses in India's marginalized communities that Upaya feels have the potential to employ the ultra-poor. The Upaya social venture identifies high-potential enterprises early on and makes seed investments. Upaya invests patient equity capital in entrepreneurs to help them grow their businesses. They receive advice on operations and financial management from Upaya, and Upaya facilitates connections to the next investment round. This will enable them to continue growing after working with Upaya.

The following video gives a deeper logic model that helps us very systematically breakdown our intervention and

  • Think through step by step

  • What are the causes and effects of Upaya's actions?

  • With any logic model, you should start with the inputs.

The immediate impact of doing all these things is that the immediate output is a profitable, self-sustainable, and scalable business. If these businesses are all those things, they should create new jobs for the poor. Upaya has some control over these things as Upaya because this is how they work hands-on with our entrepreneurs. Upaya's founder Sachi advises businesses on making their systems more robust and profitable. He hopes this will result in more jobs.

But then, what happens next is a little bit out of Upaya's control. However, Upaya certainly hopes that it happens because that is what Upaya hopes for. That is, newly created jobs should provide stable and increased income for jobholders, and that income should move those jobholders out of poverty. Upaya looks at how it moves job holders out of poverty along several dimensions.

Once the logic model is defined, Upaya can then define the metrics. Corresponding to each of these steps, these quantitative measures give us an idea of whether they are on track or not with our mission. The SDGs are especially relevant to it. SDG number eight doesn't just mention the number of jobs. It cares about decent work. These jobs must pay well, be dignified, and move people out of poverty, right?

Let's review Upaya's Logic Model below and get an in-depth understanding of achieving a goal. 

 

Logic Model Diagram

Slide7

 

 

Slide8

 

 

How to create logic model?

Logic Model Planning

Logic model planning uses logic to design and implement a program or intervention. It involves identifying the resources that will be needed for the program, the activities that will be conducted, and the outcomes that the program is intended to achieve.

The process of logic model planning typically involves several steps, including:

  • Identifying the problem or need that the program will address: The first step in logic model planning is to identify the problem or need that the program will address. This may involve gathering data or conducting a needs assessment to determine the nature and extent of the problem.

  • Identifying the goals and objectives of the program: Once the problem or need has been identified, the next step is to identify the goals and objectives of the program. These should be specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and time-bound goals that the program hopes to achieve.

  • Identifying the resources needed: The next step is identifying the necessary resources to implement the program, such as funding, staff, and materials.

  • Developing the activities that will be conducted: Once the resources have been identified, the next step is to develop the activities that will be conducted using those resources. These activities should be designed to achieve the program's goals and objectives.

  • Identifying the outcomes that will be achieved: The final step in logic model planning is to identify the outcomes that the program is intended to achieve. These outcomes should be specific, measurable, and achievable and align with the program's goals and objectives.

The goal of logic model planning is to develop a clear and coherent plan for implementing a program or intervention and to ensure that the program is well-aligned with the resources and activities needed to achieve the desired outcomes.

 

 

Logic Model Evaluation

of a program or intervention. This can involve collecting and analyzing data to determine whether the program is achieving its intended outcomes and identifying any areas of the program that may need to be modified or improved.

Logic model evaluation typically involves several steps, including:

  • Identifying the outcomes that the program is intended to achieve: The logic model should outline the specific outcomes that the program is designed to achieve, such as increased knowledge and skills among participants, improved access to services, or improved health outcomes.

  • Identifying indicators and data sources: For each outcome, evaluators should identify the indicators used to measure progress and impact and the data sources used to collect that data.

  • Collecting and analyzing data: Once the indicators and data sources have been identified, evaluators should collect and analyze the data to determine whether the program is achieving its intended outcomes.

  • Reporting findings: Evaluators should present their findings clearly and concisely, highlighting any areas of the program that are working well and any areas that may need to be modified or improved.

Overall, the logic model evaluation aims to help program planners and stakeholders understand the program's effectiveness and identify any areas that may need to be modified or improved to achieve the desired outcomes.

Upaya Social Ventures is a Seattle-based impact fund. Their mission is to create dignified jobs and eradicate extreme poverty. Their work most closely aligns with SDG 1 & SDG 8. Let's dive deeper into the logic model and metrics they use to measure decent wages, economic growth, and the eradication of extreme poverty.

It is a thought-provoking and expert video that every impact practitioner should watch.

As Sachi Shenoy, founder of Upaya Ventures, says, "The first question everyone asks is, how do you create jobs?"

Upaya creates jobs by supporting entrepreneurs building businesses in India's marginalized communities that Upaya feels have the potential to employ the ultra-poor. The Upaya social venture identifies high-potential enterprises early on and makes seed investments. Upaya invests patient equity capital in entrepreneurs to help them grow their businesses. They receive advice on operations and financial management from Upaya, and Upaya facilitates connections to the next investment round. This will enable them to continue growing after working with Upaya.

The following video gives a deeper logic model that helps us very systematically breakdown our intervention and

  • Think through step by step

  • What are the causes and effects of Upaya's actions?

  • With any logic model, you should start with the inputs.

The immediate impact of doing all these things is that the immediate output is a profitable, self-sustainable, and scalable business. If these businesses are all those things, they should create new jobs for the poor. Upaya has some control over these things as Upaya because this is how they work hands-on with our entrepreneurs. Upaya's founder Sachi advises businesses on making their systems more robust and profitable. He hopes this will result in more jobs.

But then, what happens next is a little bit out of Upaya's control. However, Upaya certainly hopes that it happens because that is what Upaya hopes for. That is, newly created jobs should provide stable and increased income for jobholders, and that income should move those jobholders out of poverty. Therefore, Upaya looks at how it moves job holders out of poverty along several dimensions.

Once the logic model is defined, Upaya can then determine the metrics. Corresponding to each of these steps, these quantitative measures give us an idea of whether they are on track or not with our mission. The SDGs are especially relevant to it. For example, SDG number eight doesn't just mention the number of jobs. It cares about decent work. These jobs must pay well, be dignified, and move people out of poverty, right?

Let's review Upaya's Logic Model below and get an in-depth understanding of achieving a goal. 

 

Logic Model Diagram

Slide7

 

 

Slide8

 

 

KNOWLEDGE BASE

Logic model resources


Here is an external resource on logic models with a URL:

Conclusion

In conclusion, a logic model is a graphical representation of the relationships among a program or intervention's resources, the activities it conducts, and the outcomes it seeks to achieve. It is a tool that helps program planners, evaluators, and stakeholders to understand and communicate the logic behind a program or intervention.

Logic models can be helpful in various contexts, including program planning, evaluation, and communication. They can help program planners identify the resources and activities needed to achieve the desired outcomes and help evaluators track the progress and impact of a program over time. They can also communicate the logic behind a program to stakeholders, such as funders, partners, and community members.

Overall, logic models are a valuable tool for understanding and improving the effectiveness of a program or intervention.