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What is logic model?

Logic Model

Looking to take your program strategy to the next level? Look no further than Sopact's Impact App and Logic Model. Our innovative tools and resources are designed to help organizations of all sizes and sectors create and implement effective impact strategies that deliver measurable results.


What is logic model?

A logic model is a powerful tool that can help you plan, implement, and evaluate programs with greater precision and impact. Sopact's impact strategy app allows you can create logic models. But, it takes it further by aligning with data strategy and dashboard plan. Turn them into actionable strategies for success, unlocking their full potential.

Build a visual representation of the relationships between program inputs, activities, outputs, and outcomes. It can help you design, check, and communicate the effectiveness of your program.

The logic model can help you improve program efficiency and accountability to enhance stakeholder engagement and funding opportunities. However, creating effective logic models can be challenging. It requires a deep understanding of program theory, data collection and analysis, and stakeholder feedback. Sopact's impact strategy app offers comprehensive tools and resources to guide you through the process and help you succeed.

Watch our impact strategy video to see how it works, explore the library of strategies to find inspiration, and sign up. With Sopact's actionable approach to impact strategy, you can unlock your full program potential and make a real difference.

Logic Model



Logic Model Training

The theory of change is the foundation for understanding the social impact of programs, products, or services. 

  1. Introduction to the logic model [7 min]
  2. Optimize logic model  (Real-world case studies) [60 min]

How program logic model can help?

Here are several ways in which a logic model can be helpful:

  • Planning: A logic model can be useful for planning and designing a program or intervention. It helps program planners identify the resources they need, the activities they will conduct, and the outcomes they hope to achieve.
  • Communication: A logic model can communicate the logic behind a program. Staff can decide on interventions for stakeholders, such as funders, partners, and community members. It can help clarify the program's goals and objectives and show how it is intended to achieve its intended outcomes.
  • Evaluation: A logic model can guide the assessment of a program or intervention. It can help evaluators to identify the appropriate indicators and data and track the program performance over time.
  • Continuous improvement: The logic model can be a valuable tool for continuous improvement. Staff can learn about programs that are working well. Staff can also learn about a program that needs to be modified or improved. It can also help to identify any unintended consequences of the program.
logic model

Overall, a logic model can be a valuable tool for understanding and improving the effectiveness of a program or intervention. The main difference here is that when you design a logic model, you must start with dashboard design and bind your data strategy to get the most effective results in a short time using the impact strategy app

A Real-World Use Case

The Power of Logic Model Program Evaluation

Logic model program evaluation is a powerful tool for assessing the effectiveness of programs and interventions. It provides a framework for rigorously evaluating a program's inputs, activities, outputs, and outcomes. This evaluation type helps organizations identify what is working and what needs improvement, which can inform decision making and improve outcomes.

Let's take the example of a non-profit organization focused on reducing "food insecurity" in a particular community. The organization has implemented a program that provides free meals to children in low-income families. The program has been running for a few years, and the organization wants to assess its effectiveness. 

The organization would first develop a logic model that outlines the program's inputs, activities, outputs, and outcomes. For example,

  • The inputs would include the resources and funding that the organization has invested in the program.
  • The activities would include the processes and strategies that the organization uses to provide free meals to children.
  • The outputs would include the number of meals served, the number of children reached, and other relevant metrics.
  • The outcomes would include the program's short- and long-term impacts, such as the children's improved health and academic performance.

Once the logic model is developed, the organization can collect data to assess the program's effectiveness. This might include surveys of program participants and their families, analysis of program data, and other relevant sources of information. The organization can then use this data to make evidence based decisions about the program's future.

Logic Model vs Theory Of Change

A logic model is a visual representation of the relationships among a program or intervention's resources, its activities, and the outcomes it seeks to achieve. It is a tool that helps program planners, evaluators, and stakeholders to understand and communicate the logic behind a program or intervention.

On the other hand, a theory of change is a detailed explanation of the logic behind a program or intervention. It explains the program's assumptions and underlying reason and outlines its steps to achieve its desired outcomes.

While a logic model and a theory of change are similar, they help explain the logic behind a program or intervention; they differ in detail and complexity. A logic model is typically a more concise and visual representation of the program's logic, while a theory of change is a more detailed and written explanation.

Using a logic model and a theory of change can be helpful in several ways. First, the logic model can visually represent the program's logic that is easy to understand and communicate to stakeholders. In contrast, the theory of change can give a more detailed and in-depth explanation of the program's logic. Together, these tools can help program planners, evaluators, and stakeholders better understand the program and its intended impacts and track its progress over time.

In general, a logic model and a theory of change communicate how change is expected to be created. A logic model usually focuses on a specific program or intervention, mapping in a linear way how the inputs, activities, etc., lead to expected outputs and outcomes. It will contain fewer contextual elements (for example, the problem being addressed) than a Theory of Change model.

In short, they both show how an intervention will create impact results. The differences are to what extent and where they focus.

Here are some of the key differences

Criteria Logic Model Theory of Change
Purpose Describes the inputs, activities, outputs, and outcomes Describes how the program will create the desired change
Focus Program activities Program goals and outcomes
Time Orientation Short-term, linear Long-term, non-linear
Emphasis Program implementation Program impact and change
Approach Prescriptive Collaborative
Flexibility Low High
Audience Funders, stakeholders Program staff, funders, stakeholders
Scope of Analysis Narrow Broad

Table: Comparision between logic model vs. theory of change

The comparison table shows that while logic models and theories of change have some similarities in their purpose and audience, they differ in several critical criteria. The logic model primarily focuses on program implementation, while the theory of change emphasizes program impact and change. The time orientation of the logic model is short-term and linear, while the theory of change has a long-term and non-linear perspective. The approach of the logic model is prescriptive, while the theory of change is collaborative. Finally, the flexibility of the logic model is low, while the theory of change is high, and the scope of analysis of the logic model is narrow compared to the broad scope of the theory of change.

This image from Tools4Dev visually demonstrates some of the critical differences mentioned above.

theory of change logic model

Logic Model components

  • 01 Inputs
  • 02 Activities
  • 03 Outputs
  • 04 Impact
  • 05 Outcomes
Inputs refer to the resources or investments needed to ensure that the activities take place. According to our example, we need quality course materials, skilled trainers, a physical venue, or an online host, investment, and more.
In this step, we answer the question “what activities need to take place for each output to happen?”

Providing people with high-quality training is one of the activities directly aligned with our sample output and outcome. Along with quality skill-building training, an activity can also include resume preparation or interview preparation. All of these increase the number of successful placement possibilities.
The outputs are the immediate results of our activities or products, and they are necessary for achieving the outcomes. Think of them as positive indicators that the outcomes are on track. 

As per our Skills Development example, one output could be the “increase in the number of people graduating from our business training”. In this case, we are assuming that as more and more people go through quality marketable training, there is a greater possibility of an increase in successful job placements. To dig deeper, collecting some demographic data, along with service data can help to draw useful connections.

The impact is the systemic change that you expect to see in the long-term. Impact usually takes a few years to happen, which makes it difficult to measure, but it does give us a great foundation to define the outcomes which are within our reach to influence and measure. 

Outcomes are the intended and unintended changes that your stakeholders are experiencing or might experience with your intervention. In other words, outcomes are the broader benefits we work to achieve. In our Skills Development example, one outcome could be “increasing job placement”. How do we know that we are increasing job placement? - By keeping an eye on the number of people placed and retained after their onboarding training.

A well-designed Theory of Change should include long term outcomes, mid term outcomes, and short-term outcomes. As you demonstrate a clear improvement in your outcomes, you are more likely to get other players such as government or public and private partners to step in to help you scale your mission.

Good outcome measurement requires designing a stakeholder survey that includes baseline, mid-line, and exit line results.

Upaya Social Venture

Logic Model Framework

Listen to the above webinar from Upaya Social Venture for a more in-depth understanding

1. Be systematic

A well-thought-out logic model can help you systematically break down your intervention and think through the cause and effect of what your organization does.

Logic model framework

A sample logic model template

2. Associate Metrics

Quantitative metrics give organizations an idea of whether or not they’re on track toward their mission. To track new job creation, for instance, Upaya records how many new jobs each company in our portfolio creates each quarter.

To track progress out of poverty, however, we measure the increase in income that this new job provides and then observe what it helps the person: improve the condition of their house. Eat more food? Purchase more assets? Send their children to school?

output vs outcome

Upaya’s logic model includes outputs and outcomes measured using quantitative metrics.


3. Measure the depth of impact

For Upaya, we must do more than count the number of jobs created and assess whether the jobs are changing. These jobs must pay fairly, pay well, be dignified, and move people out of poverty.

We conduct regular surveys with the individuals who receive these jobs to measure the extent to which the positions and increased income are having the desired impact.

depth of impact

Upaya asks jobholders what their newly increased income will help them achieve to understand the impact the jobs are having on their lives.

Real-world Use case

Creating logic model

Upaya Social Ventures is a Seattle-based impact fund. Their mission is to create dignified jobs and eradicate extreme poverty. Their work most closely aligns with SDG 1 & SDG 8. Let's dive deeper into the logic model and metrics they use to measure decent wages, economic growth, and eradicating extreme poverty.

It is a thought-provoking and expert video that every impact practitioner should watch.

As Sachi Shenoy, founder of Upaya Ventures, says, "The first question everyone asks is, how do you create jobs?"

Upaya creates jobs by supporting entrepreneurs building businesses in India's marginalized communities that Upaya feels have the potential to employ the ultra-poor. The Upaya social venture identifies high-potential enterprises early on and makes seed investments.

Upaya invests patient equity capital in entrepreneurs to help them grow their businesses. They receive advice on operations and financial management from Upaya, and Upaya facilitates connections to the next investment round. This will enable them to continue growing after working with Upaya.

The following video gives a deeper logic model that helps us very systematically breakdown our intervention and

  • Think through - step by step.
  • What are the causes and effects of Upaya's actions?
  • With any logic model, you should start with the inputs.

The immediate impact of doing all these things is that the immediate output is a profitable, self sustainable, and scalable business. If these businesses are all those things, they should create new jobs for the poor.

Upaya has some control over these things as Upaya because this is how they work hands-on with our entrepreneurs. Upaya's founder Sachi advises businesses on making their systems more robust and profitable. He hopes this will result in more jobs.

But then, what happens next is a little bit out of Upaya's control. However, Upaya certainly hopes that it happens because that is what Upaya hopes for. That is, newly created jobs should provide stable and increased income for jobholders, and that income should move those jobholders out of poverty. Upaya looks at how it moves job holders out of poverty along several dimensions.

Once the logic model is defined, Upaya can then define the metrics. Corresponding to each of these steps, these quantitative measures give us an idea of whether they are on track or not with our mission. The SDGs are especially relevant to it. SDG number eight doesn't just mention the number of jobs. It cares about decent work. These jobs must pay well, be dignified, and move people out of poverty, right?

Let's review Upaya's Logic Model below and get an in-depth understanding of achieving a goal. 


Logic Model Diagram







Logic Model Planning

Logic model planning uses logic to design and implement a program or intervention. It involves identifying the resources that will be needed for the program, the activities that will be conducted, and the outcomes that the program is intended to achieve.

The process of logic model planning typically involves several steps, including:

  • Identifying the problem or need that the program will address: The first step in logic model planning is to identify the problem or need that the program will address. This may involve gathering data or conducting a needs assessment to determine the nature and extent of the problem.

  • Identifying the goals and objectives of the program: Once the problem or need has been identified, the next step is to identify the goals and objectives of the program. These should be specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and time-bound goals that the program hopes to achieve.

  • Identifying the resources needed: The next step is identifying the necessary resources to implement the program, such as funding, staff, and materials.

  • Developing the activities that will be conducted: Once the resources have been identified, the next step is to develop the activities that will be conducted using those resources. These activities should be designed to achieve the program's goals and objectives.

  • Identifying the outcomes that will be achieved: The final step in logic model planning is to identify the outcomes that the program is intended to achieve. These outcomes should be specific, measurable, and achievable and align with the program's goals and objectives.

The goal of logic model planning is to develop a clear and coherent plan for implementing a program or intervention and to ensure that the program is well-aligned with the resources and activities needed to achieve the desired outcomes.

Logic Model Evaluation

of a program or intervention. This can involve collecting and analyzing data to determine whether the program is achieving its intended outcomes and identifying any areas of the program that may need to be modified or improved.

Logic model evaluation typically involves several steps, including:

  • Identifying the outcomes that the program is intended to achieve:

The logic model should outline the specific outcomes the program is designed to achieve, such as increased knowledge and skills among participants, improved access to services, or improved health outcomes.

  • Identifying indicators and data sources:

For each outcome, evaluators should identify the indicators used to measure progress and impact and the data sources used to collect that data.

  • Collecting and analyzing data:

Once the indicators and data sources have been identified, evaluators should collect and analyze the data to determine whether the program achieves its intended outcomes.

  • Reporting findings:

Evaluators should present their findings clearly and concisely, highlighting any areas of the program that are working well and any areas that need to be modified or improved.

Overall, the logic model evaluation aims to help program planners and stakeholders understand the program's effectiveness and identify any areas that may need to be modified or improved to achieve the desired outcomes.



In conclusion, a logic model is valuable for program planning, implementation, and evaluation. It provides a clear and concise way to map out the steps of a program or intervention and to identify its inputs, activities, outputs, and outcomes. A well-designed logic model can help organizations to understand the theory behind their programs better, make evidence based decisions, and improve outcomes.

However, developing a logic model can be challenging and time consuming. That's where Sopact's impact strategy comes in. By aligning logic model, data strategy, and dashboard design, Sopact's impact strategy can help organizations quickly develop a comprehensive and effective impact management system. With the power of the impact strategy app, organizations can track their progress, identify areas for improvement, and make data-driven decisions that lead to program success.

The impact strategy app is a user-friendly and intuitive tool that guides organizations through developing a logic model and creating an end-to-end impact management system. It includes many features and functionalities, including data collection and analysis, report generation, and dashboard design. The app is designed to be highly customizable, allowing organizations to tailor it to their specific needs and goals.

Overall, the power of Sopact's impact strategy lies in its ability to help organizations to develop a clear and comprehensive understanding of their programs and their impact. Organizations can create an end-to-end impact management system that improves outcomes and program success by aligning logic models, data strategies, and dashboard design.