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Aligning Logic, Metrics, Data—Communicate!

Impact Reporting

Impact reporting measures and communicates the social, environmental, and economic impacts of an organization's activities, products, or services.


Impact Reporting

Impact reporting allows organizations to communicate positive and negative social and environmental footprints. The primary goal is to share both social and environmental materiality and outcomes. Impact reporting enables a commitment to sustainability and social change toward stakeholders.

Impact reporting often involves transparent communication of risk for shareholders and stakeholders. For mission-driven nonprofits, usually, this amounts to a social impact on stakeholders. Large companies with environmental risk portfolios often focus on zero carbon.

An impact report provides transparency and accountability for a company's actions. It also helps identify improvement areas. Additionally, it allows them to show their commitment to sustainability and corporate responsibility. Companies can measure progress towards sustainability goals as well.

Companies can also identify new business opportunities through impact reporting.

A company can use many frameworks and guidelines to create an impact report. Likewise, many frameworks and standards are available depending on the reporting lens.

For example, we use TCFD, GRI, GRESB, and CDP for sustainability. Therefore, impact investment IRIS+ is appropriate. Organizations focused on charity, or social impact should use the impact metrics aligned with the theory of change or logic model.

How to design effective

Impact Report Design

"Impact report design" refers to creating a report that transparently showcases an organization's positive and negative impacts on people, the planet, and profit. Rather than selectively highlighting only positive stories, the report provides an honest and comprehensive portrayal of the organization's overall impact. This involves carefully aligning goals, engaging with relevant stakeholders, and collecting meaningful impact data. To simplify this process and create a powerful impact report, Sopact offers an impact strategy app that can help guide you through each process step.

impact reporting design

  • Strategic Goals: Begin the report by stating the organization's goals and objectives. This sets the context for the information and helps to clarify the purpose and focus of the initiatives, programs, or projects. For example, an organization working to improve health outcomes for "disadvantaged communities" might strategically aim to " reduce infant mortality rates by 10%". 
  • Problem Statement: State the problem or challenge that the organization is addressing. This should include background information on the issue and the population or environment that the organization is working with. For example, an organization working to improve health outcomes for disadvantaged communities might state that these communities have higher infant mortality rates than others.
  • Theory of Change: Explain the organization's theory of change or the logic behind how its initiatives, programs, or projects are expected to lead to desired outcomes. For example, an organization working to improve health outcomes for disadvantaged communities might explain that they hope to reduce infant mortality rates by providing access to high-quality primary care and prenatal care.
  • Communicating the Theory of Change: Be sure to share the theory of change in the report so the intended audience can easily understand it. This may include using visual aids such as diagrams or flowcharts to explain the logic and assumptions behind the theory of change.
  • Process of Collecting Impact Evidence: Describe the methods used to collect data and evidence, including the time frame, sampling methods, and data collection instruments. This information helps to ensure that the data is credible and reliable. For example, a group trying to improve healthcare for people who don't have as much money or resources might tell people that they gathered information by asking patients questions and talking to doctors and nurses.
  • Verification of Data and Outcomes: Report on the results of the data analysis and the outcomes that have been achieved. Use appropriate visualizations such as tables, charts, or graphs to communicate the data effectively. Be sure to include both quantitative and qualitative data if available. For example, an organization working to improve health outcomes for disadvantaged communities might report that their program led to a 10% reduction in infant mortality rates.
  • Summary of Key Learnings: Summarize the key learnings from the report and discuss what worked well, what didn't, and why. This section should be used to reflect on the critical lessons learned and to identify areas for improvement in the future.
  • Stakeholder Feedback: Share feedback and views from stakeholders, including beneficiaries, partners, donors, and other organizations. This helps to build trust and engagement with stakeholders.
  • Storytelling: Use storytelling to bring the report to life by highlighting the experiences of individuals or communities impacted by the organization's work. This can help to humanize the data and make it more relatable to readers.



Impact Report Examples

Impact reporting is an essential practice for organizations committed to making a positive impact in the world. It allows organizations to foster trust, showcase transparency, and guide future actions by sharing the results of their initiatives. In this section, we showcase impact report examples from a range of organizations, including impact funds, Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFIs), nonprofits, and social impact organizations. These examples illustrate the potential of impact reporting in capturing unique insights and driving meaningful change.

We invite you to explore the reports of Impact Fund, CDFI, Nonprofit, and Social Impact Organization, which demonstrate diverse approaches to impact reporting. Each report highlights the organization's contributions to various areas, such as sustainability, economic empowerment, education access, and gender equality. By studying these examples, you can understand the value of impact reporting and consider how it can be used to tell your organization's story and foster positive change.

How to write impact report

Impact reporting is a powerful tool that organizations use to showcase the positive changes they bring to communities and the environment. A well-constructed impact report tells a story of transformation, capturing the outcomes achieved and the significance of the impact. Organizations must thoughtfully approach data collection, analysis, and stakeholder engagement to create a truly impactful report. In this article, we explore the critical elements of impactful reporting and the value of data visualization in enhancing communication.

Impact reporting is dynamic and ongoing—it involves presenting more than just raw data. It's about crafting a compelling narrative backed by evidence. By engaging in transparent communication and learning from data, organizations can stay on track to deliver meaningful impact.

An effective impact report incorporates stakeholder inclusivity, authentic beneficiary voices, accessibility, and a cyclical approach to learning and improvement. Collaboration and continuous evaluation are vital for driving positive change.

Creating a compelling impact report involves several key steps: defining objectives, collecting data, analyzing and interpreting data, developing a narrative, designing visual elements, reviewing and refining the report, and disseminating it to engage stakeholders.

Visualizing data through charts, infographics, and images adds immense value to impact reports. Data visualization enables stakeholders to quickly understand complex insights without sacrificing credibility. However, organizations should be mindful of common pitfalls in data visualization, such as using large 'other' categories, bar charts that don't start at zero, confusing correlation with causation, improper use of averages, and visual clutter.

Effective impact reporting is a continuous learning, improvement, and communication journey. By integrating data visualization, organizations can enhance the appeal and accessibility of their reports, effectively showcasing their positive impact.

data visualization impact report data visualization and presentation data visualization for impact reporting


Best practices of designing

Nonprofit Impact Reporting

10 Best Practices for Designing Nonprofit Impact Reports

  • Clearly define your organization's mission and goals, and ensure that your impact reporting aligns with these.
  • Use a consistent format for reporting, and ensure that the information is easy to understand for internal and external audiences.
  • Use quantitative and qualitative data to understand your organization's impact comprehensively.
  • Collect data regularly, and use it to track progress and identify areas for improvement.
  • Share your impact report with various stakeholders, including donors, board members, and the communities you serve.
  • Please be open about any limitations or challenges faced in reaching your impact, and use them as opportunities for learning and improvement.
  • Please continue to evaluate and improve your impact reporting process to ensure it is practical and relevant.
  • Can you get an independent evaluation or third-party certification to verify your impact reporting?
  • Be sure to comply with any legal and regulatory requirements related to impact reporting.
  • Use impact reporting as an opportunity to communicate the value and impact of your organization to the public, policymakers, and funders.
 nonprofit impact report design

Program Reporting

International Development agencies play a crucial role in implementing and supporting programs to improve the quality of life in developing regions. These agencies are often funded through a combination of United Nations (UN)-based or country-specific agencies such as the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the UK Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office (formerly DFID), or large foundations. These organizations typically operate within results and reporting frameworks, such as the International Aid Transparency Initiative (IATI). While no apparent impact framework exists, these reporting frameworks are the closest approaches to tracking program outcomes. Although distinct from impact goals, they serve as essential tools for measuring the progress and effectiveness of development programs.

When designing monitoring and evaluation (M&E) reporting for International Development programs, there are several best practices to remember. Here are some key principles to consider:

  • Be Clear on Your Goals: Before you begin designing your M&E reporting, ensure you clearly understand your project or program goals. This will help you identify the most relevant data to collect and track and ensure that your reporting is aligned with your program objectives.
  • Define Your Indicators: Indicators are the specific measures you will use to track progress toward your program goals. It's essential to carefully choose indicators that are relevant, measurable, and aligned with your program's goals. Ensure you have a mix of quantitative and qualitative indicators to provide a complete picture of your program's impact.
  • Use a Logical Framework: A logical framework is a tool that can help you map out your program's objectives, indicators, and activities. This can be a helpful guide for designing your M&E reporting and ensuring you collect the right data to track progress.
  • Use Simple and Straightforward Language: Your M&E reporting should be easily understood by a wide range of stakeholders, so use simple and straightforward language. Avoid jargon and technical terms that may be confusing to people who are not familiar with your program.
  • Report Regularly: Regular reporting is essential for informing stakeholders about your program's progress. Be sure to establish a reporting schedule that works for your program and stick to it.
  • Use Visuals: Visuals, such as graphs and charts, can be a helpful way to convey complex data in an easy-to-understand format. Be sure to choose visuals appropriate for the data you are presenting, and use colors and labels to make them easy to interpret.
  • Share Your Results: Once you have collected and analyzed your data, share your results with stakeholders. This can help build buy-in for your program and provide valuable feedback for program improvement.

By following these best practices, development agencies can design M&E reporting that is effective, efficient, and informative for all stakeholders involved in their programs. These reports are instrumental in assessing development initiatives' progress, effectiveness, and impact and ensuring accountability to funders, partners, and beneficiaries.

Program Reporting

Impact Reporting Examples and Variations

While list above provides most frequent audience, below you can find additional types of impact reporting examples

SDG Report

The SDG Report is typically written by national governments in collaboration with international organizations such as the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and other partners. National governments are responsible for producing the report, which provides a comprehensive assessment of progress toward achieving the SDGs in their country. However, other entities such as non-governmental organizations (NGOs), civil society organizations, private sector organizations, and academic institutions can also consider writing the report. They can provide additional perspectives and information on the progress toward achieving the SDGs and contribute to the report's completeness and inclusiveness.

It's important to note that national governments are ultimately responsible for the report. Still, they can and should involve other entities as well as experts in the process of writing the report. This can help to ensure that the report is comprehensive, accurate, and relevant to the needs of different stakeholders.

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) report tracks progress toward achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs are a set of 17 global goals adopted by the United Nations in 2015 to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity.

The goal of the SDG Report is to provide a comprehensive assessment of progress toward achieving the SDGs at the global, regional, and national levels. The report is intended to inform policy-making and to mobilize action to achieve the SDGs.

The most important criteria for the SDG Report include the following:

  1. Relevance: The report should focus on the SDGs and their targets and indicators and provide information relevant to decision-making.
  2. Completeness: The report should provide a comprehensive assessment of progress toward achieving the SDGs, including an analysis of progress, challenges, and opportunities.
  3. Transparency: The report should be transparent and easily accessible, providing clear and concise information that is easy to understand.
  4. Timeliness: The report should be produced and disseminated on time to inform policy-making and mobilize action.
  5. Methodological soundness: The report should use robust and internationally comparable data and methods and be based on internationally agreed standards and guidelines.
  6. Indicator-based: The report should be based on the SDGs and their targets and indicators and provide information on progress toward achieving these targets.
  7. Inclusiveness: The report should consider the perspectives and experiences of all stakeholders, including governments, civil society, the private sector, and academia.
  8. Participation: The report should involve all stakeholders, including governments, civil society, the private sector, and academia.
  9. Evidence-based: The report should be based on reliable and up-to-date data and evidence and free of political bias.
  10. Action-oriented: The report should provide concrete recommendations for action to achieve the SDGs.

Community Report

Community reports are typically written by organizations or government entities that serve a specific community or geographic area. These organizations may include non-profits, local government agencies, schools, or businesses.

The primary purpose of a community report is to provide an overview of the community's current condition and progress, as well as the organization's activities and impact within the community. In addition, community reports can inform the public, stakeholders, and funders about the organization's mission, goals, and accomplishments.

A community report should include the following key elements:

  • Community profile: An overview of the community's demographics, economy, and other relevant information that provides context for the organization's work.
  • Organization's mission and activities: A description of the organization's mission, goals, and programs, along with statistics on the number of people served and outcomes achieved.
  • Impact: An assessment of the organization's impact on the community, including any measurable results or successes.
  • Community partnerships: A description of the organization's partnerships with other organizations, government agencies, and businesses in the community.
  • Financial Information: A summary of the organization's funding sources and expenses, including a statement of the organization's financial health.
  • Plans: A brief overview of the organization's plans for the future, including goals and strategies for achieving them.
  • Call to action: Encouraging readers to get involved and support the organization's mission and work.

Overall, community reports are an essential tool for organizations to communicate their value and impact to their stakeholders and the community they serve, and also a way to build trust and engagement.

Nonprofit Annual Report Examples

Overall, nonprofit annual reports serve as a transparent and accountable way to inform stakeholders about the organization's activities, impact, and financial health, and also as a way to acknowledge and thank donors. An excellent example of a nonprofit annual report is the one published by the American Red Cross. It includes the following key elements:

  • Executive Summary: A brief overview of the organization's mission, major accomplishments, and financial highlights for the year.
  • Financial Information: A detailed report of the organization's revenue, expenses, and assets, including an independent auditor's report.
  • Program Description: The organization's programs and services, including statistics on the number of people served and outcomes achieved.
  • Board of Directors and Staff: A list of the organization's board of directors and key staff members, along with their biographies.
  • Donor Recognition: A list of donors who have made significant contributions to the organization and a summary of the organization's fundraising activities.
  • Future plans: A brief overview of the organization's plans for the future, including goals and strategies for achieving them.
  • Audited Financial Statements


Donor Impact Report Example

A donor impact report is a document that shows the impact of a specific donation or group of donations to a nonprofit organization. It is intended to provide transparency and accountability to donors and show them how their contributions have made a difference.

An example of a purpose for a donor impact report might be to show the results of a fundraising campaign for a specific project, such as building a new community center. The report might include information such as the total amount raised, the number of donors, a breakdown of expenses, and a description of the progress made on the project. It could also include pictures or testimonials from people impacted by the project.

Impact Assessment Report

An impact assessment report is a document that describes the potential effects of a proposed project, program, or policy on different stakeholders and the environment. The report typically includes an analysis of the project's social, economic, and environmental impacts, as well as an assessment of the risks and benefits associated with it. Impact assessment reports are used to inform decision-making and to ensure that a project is sustainable and socially responsible.

Organizations, government agencies, and companies considering undertaking a project or implementing a policy that may impact the community or the environment should consider using an impact assessment report.

A team should write an impact assessment report of experts with knowledge and experience in the areas relevant to the project, such as environmental science, social science, and economics. The team should also include representatives from the community or the groups affected by the project.

An impact assessment report should include the following elements:

  1. A description of the proposed project, program, or policy, including its objectives, scope, and location.
  2. An analysis of the project's potential social, economic, and environmental impacts on stakeholders, including the community, workers, and the environment.
  3. A description of the potential risks and benefits associated with the project and an assessment of how these risks and benefits can be mitigated or maximized.
  4. An assessment of the alternatives to the proposed project and an analysis of the costs and benefits associated with each option.
  5. A summary of the findings and recommendations for the project, including measures that can be taken to mitigate negative impacts and maximize positive impacts.
  6. Conclusion
  7. References
  8. Appendices (if needed)

It's important to mention that impact assessment reports should be written in clear and concise language and accessible to all stakeholders, including those who are not experts in the field.


In conclusion, Impact reporting is a crucial tool for demonstrating the effectiveness of an organization's work and for informing decision-making, planning, and fundraising. By following a step-by-step guide and including key elements such as strategic goals, problem statement, key theory of change, the process of collecting evidence, verification of data and outcome, a summary of key learning, stakeholder feedback, and storytelling, organizations can create an impact report that effectively communicates their results and outcomes.