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Social Impact

Social impact analysis is the process of using data analysis techniques and tools to measure the impact of a particular initiative, program, or policy on a particular outcome or set of outcomes.

What is social impact analysis?

Social impact analysis uses data analysis techniques and tools to understand the social and economic impact of a particular initiative, program, or policy. In this article, we explore how organizations and governments can use impact analytics to measure the effectiveness of their interventions and identify ways to improve their impact.

Social impact analysis is the process of using data analysis techniques and tools to measure the impact of a particular initiative, program, or policy on a specific outcome or set of outcomes. This could include analyzing data on factors such as crime rates, health outcomes, educational outcomes, employment outcomes, or other social and economic well-being measures. The goal of impact analytics is to understand the extent to which a particular intervention has had a positive or negative impact on the desired outcome and to identify ways to improve the effectiveness of the intervention.

In this article, we will explore the role of impact analytics in understanding the social and economic impact of different programs and policies. Next, we will discuss the various methods and tools used in impact analytics and examine some examples of how organizations and governments have used impact analytics to measure the effectiveness of their interventions. Finally, we will look at some of the challenges and limitations of impact analytics. We will also discuss how organizations are working to overcome these challenges to improve the accuracy and reliability of their impact measurement efforts.

Impact data analytics refers to the use of data analysis techniques and tools to measure the impact of a particular initiative, program, or policy on a specific outcome or set of outcomes. This could include analyzing data on factors such as crime rates, health outcomes, educational outcomes, employment outcomes, or other social and economic well-being measures. The goal of impact data analytics is to understand the extent to which a particular intervention has had a positive or negative impact on the desired outcome and to identify ways to improve the effectiveness of the intervention.

Impact data analytics often uses various data sources and methods, including statistical analysis, machine learning techniques, and visualization tools. It can also involve using data from randomized controlled trials, quasi-experiments, or other types of evaluations, which are designed to provide a rigorous test of the impact of a particular intervention.

Overall, impact data analytics is a vital tool for organizations and governments seeking to understand their programs' and policies' social and economic impact and identify ways to improve their effectiveness.

How impact data analytics be used for social impact measurement

Data analytics can measure the social impact of a particular initiative, program, or policy in several ways. Here are a few examples:

  • Identifying trends and patterns: By analyzing data over time, data analysts can identify trends and patterns that may be relevant to understanding the social impact of a particular initiative. For example, data analytics could be used to track changes in crime rates, health outcomes, or educational outcomes over time in a community to understand the impact of a particular program or policy.
  • Evaluating program effectiveness: Data analytics can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a particular program or policy by comparing outcomes between groups that did and did not receive the intervention. For example, data analytics could be used to compare the employment outcomes of individuals who participated in a job training program versus those who did not participate.
  • Understanding the factors contributing to social impact: Data analytics can also be used to understand the factors contributing to or hindering social impact. For example, data analysts could use machine learning techniques to identify the most critical factors contributing to success in a particular program or policy or to identify the factors most closely correlated with positive or negative outcomes.

Overall, data analytics can be a powerful tool for measuring and understanding the social impact of different initiatives, programs, and policies and for identifying ways to improve the effectiveness of these interventions.


Social impact analysis training

The theory of change is the foundation for understanding the social impact of programs, products, or services. 

  1. Introduction to the theory of change [7 min]
  2. Demonstrating impact [7 min]
  3. Making the theory of change (TOC) effective [7 min]
  4. Optimize theory of change  (Real-world case studies) [60 min]
How to use

Social impact analytics

Purposeful organizations focus on people or the planet and strive to reduce negative impacts while increasing positive ones. Often, measurement and evaluation are used to justify impact. The traditional approach of justifying impact to funders often doesn't help a purposeful organization learn impact. However, there is a better approach. By embedding a strong data culture and listening to stakeholders, an organization can grow into a successful business and improve societal/environmental impact. 

Listening to stakeholders and becoming data-driven is key for organizations to succeed in their business and improve societal/environmental impact.


  • Invest in good data analytics for better impact intelligence and to scale your operations.
  • The path to success is to start fast and iterate continuously by adopting data analytics services using open-source technology platforms like SOPACT that help an organization reduce cost and time to succeed and also provide value.

If corporations, investors, and social purpose organizations become stakeholder data-centric early on, they can achieve a faster path to growth and stakeholder impact. To date, becoming data-driven has been limited to well-capitalized businesses that can afford to spend millions of dollars to meet specific business objectives. 

This article shares two insightful and groundbreaking approaches to making social purpose organizations data-driven. Our goal is to share how deep knowledge of technology and impact management can help a purposeful organization succeed faster. We will cover many deep-rooted issues from different industry players. 

Organizations often fail because many traditional approaches are not actionable, mostly academic without engaging key stakeholders, and not well tested in real life. These headwinds often mislead organizations, delaying the time it takes to achieve long-term impact. A practical and actionable approach is the only way to improve impact faster. 

Read More: How can social impact data be used to measure and manage the impact?

Social Impact Technology

Until recently, powerful data analytics were only available to large corporations with substantial IT budgets and large data teams. In general, purposeful organizations need more IT budgets or have lower-tech knowledge that limits their ability to become data-driven and impactful. The open-source movement has brought data analytics and integration to organizations with small IT budgets in the past few years. SOPACT continuously strives to democratize data-driven decision-making by lowering costs and providing value. This generation of platforms can seamlessly integrate internal and external data, providing better impact intelligence. 

Technology for good, techforgood


Read More: Can impact data improve our health and wellbeing?

Scale by becoming data-driven:

For small and medium businesses and nonprofits with limited IT budgets, leveraging innovative technology solutions brings efficiency. Corporations with meaningful programs can also benefit greatly. Investing in data-driven strategies pays off by bringing efficiency, accountability, and stopping waste. 

We all agree that typical organizations have many data sources, such as hundreds of spreadsheets, CRMs, case management systems, program management, grant management, and marketing systems. These fragmented data sources make it difficult for organizations to gain impact or operational insight to make strategic decisions. Organizations can achieve a faster program-market fit, product-market fit, or service-market fit by unlocking data faster and continuously, reducing cost and time to succeed.

One of our previous blogs described impact measurement and management (IMM) and how it provides value to scale business and social impact through continuous data intelligence. 

Read More: 3 Reasons: Why measuring impact for nonprofits is essential?


Case study

Build social impact management capacity

In 2021 Sopact partnered with the Miller Center for Social Entrepreneurship to build the impact management capacity of 300 social purpose organizations to improve social impact. We begin by looking for existing data, perhaps stakeholder or operation data in spreadsheets. The first step is to ensure that every purposeful organization has a well-defined impact objective or theory of change aligned with stakeholders. Later focus on overall as-is (current data) and future data design. 

Our experience suggests that connecting existing data with real-time analytics earlier puts you on the path to success faster. You can first determine whether current data is useful; if not, understand gaps in activity, output, and outcome data.


Social impact management is about continuous improvement.

Traditional impact measurement or evaluation methods are time-consuming and resource-consuming. This revolutionary approach combines innovative technology with practical "impact experiments." While we believe the new technology platform is a game-changer, more is needed. We need a fresh approach to impact. Impact Cloud® DNA combines innovative technology with impact experiments. The following article will give you deep insight into "impact experiments" - a way to become impact management driven faster! A subsequent article will provide deep insight into the impact data pipeline - a revolutionary approach to making every organization impactful faster!

Subscribe to learn actionable steps to impact experiments. We will provide step-by-step guidance in the Linkedin newsletter.

Our goal is to deploy data analytics services within days, not a typical year-long time frame, so organizations can iterate faster with impact experiments. Compared to corporates, many purpose organizations need more money or capability to deploy expensive IT solutions. 

The path to success starts with frequent and simple data management systems such as MS Excel, Google Sheets, Smart Sheets, Airtable, etc. Some mature organizations with a decent budget may have Salesforce, PowerBI, case management, or program management systems. 

The strategy starts with commonly used applications, connects them in seconds, and lets the data flow to a real-time dashboard. Without a preference, you can use Google Sheets templates to develop a dashboard for impact measurement and management (IMM) that will incorporate information from other sources, such as operations or finance. As you grow, you can maintain a unified approach. With more projects and partners, granular permissions are granted to each team. Then, they will be able to access data they should have access to, enabling effective collaboration with the funding entity. 

You can share results based on funder goals with multiple programs and funders. Funders who focus on outcomes can also help organizations build their capacity. Another crucial component is the semantic layer. The ability to align with impact management projects (IMPs), score, benchmark, and unify data from multiple sources thanks to an innovative and intelligent semantic layer is a game-changer 

Once you build a robust data-driven approach, designing stakeholder progress is a must. The success of your economic development, diversity-equity-inclusion program, and worker wage growth require systematic data collection, better data science, and proven social science.  You need a partner with the sector, impact management, and deep technology expertise to succeed with your sustainable business and finance initiatives. 

Read More: The Impact Management Journey of Sustainable Social Enterprises

Become a Social Impact Analytics Pro

The path to success is to start fast and iterate continuously. Unfortunately, most organizations suffer from long-term "analysis paralysis" as they may not have sector, impact management, and technology experience. As your social programs or business grows, the line between impact management and business data intelligence blurs. Good data analytics will allow you to scale your future operations and impact. 



A Comprehensive Guide to

Longitudinal Data

Longitudinal data refers to data collected over time from the same participants, individuals, or units. This type of data allows researchers to track changes and patterns over time, providing valuable insights into the dynamics of various phenomena. In this article, we aim to provide a comprehensive guide to longitudinal data, including its definition, characteristics, types, and best practices for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting longitudinal data.

Longitudinal data analysis is a crucial impact evaluation tool designed to demonstrate outcome progress over some time.  A longitudinal analysis refers to an investigation where stakeholder outcomes and possible interventions or exposures are collected at multiple follow-up times. A longitudinal study generally yields multiple or “repeated” measurements on each subject.

When working on mental health, job creation, and youth empowerment, it is necessary to see the progress an individual or community is making over time. Outcome Star is one such system designed based on well-accepted evaluation surveys. As a result, the organization can measure the progress of a stakeholder over some time.  


Characteristics of Longitudinal Data

Longitudinal data is characterized by several unique features that set it apart from other types of data. These include:

  • Temporal sequencing: Longitudinal data is collected at multiple points, allowing researchers to track changes and patterns over time.
  • Participants: Longitudinal data is collected from the same participants over time, allowing researchers to track individual changes and patterns.
  • Variables: Longitudinal data often includes multiple variables, allowing researchers to examine the relationships between variables and changes in these variables over time.

Types of Longitudinal Data

There are two types of longitudinal data: panel data and cohort data.

  • Panel data: Panel data refers to data collected from the same participants over time, with a fixed sample size.
  • Cohort data: Cohort data refers to data collected from a cohort or group of individuals who share a common characteristic or experience, such as a birth year.

Best Practices for Collecting Longitudinal Data

  • Plan: Planning is critical to collecting high-quality longitudinal data. This includes identifying the variables to be measured, determining the appropriate sample size and frequency of data collection, and developing a data collection protocol.
  • Use reliable measures: Using reliable and valid measures is essential for ensuring the quality of longitudinal data. This includes selecting appropriate measures for the studied population and ensuring that measures are consistent across time points.
  • Maintain consistency: Maintaining consistency in the data collection process is critical for ensuring the quality of longitudinal data. This includes using the same measures and procedures at each time point and providing that data is collected in a consistent manner.
  • Monitor data quality: Monitoring the quality of longitudinal data throughout the data collection process is essential for ensuring the accuracy and reliability of the data. This includes regularly checking for missing data, outliers, and other anomalies.
Best practices of

Longitudinal Data Analysis

  • Consider the design: The design of a longitudinal study, including the number and timing of measurements, the type of data collected, and the sample size, can have a significant impact on the results of the study. It is important to consider the design of a longitudinal study when analyzing the data.
  • Use appropriate statistical methods: The use of appropriate statistical methods is critical for accurately analyzing longitudinal data. This includes using appropriate regression models, taking into account the temporal dependence of the data, and controlling for any potential confounds.
  • Use visualization tools: Visualization tools, such as graphs and plots, can help explore and communicate the results of a longitudinal study.

Managing longitudinal surveys and analyzing can soon become complex as the number of programs and stakeholder grows. Intelligent data collection is required to reduce the data collection burden and analyze real-time results for better stakeholder listening. For example

  • Refrain from repeating demographics or data that do not change.
  • Use the same survey with different phases to see continuous improvement.
  • Focus on demographic data in the baseline
  • Uniquely identify stakeholder
  • Define control groups
  • Reduce sample biases

Outcome Tracking


Social impact analysis resources


In conclusion, social impact analysis is a crucial process for organizations that are seeking to understand and improve the impact they are having on the communities and individuals they serve. By collecting and analyzing social impact data, organizations can better understand the outcomes and impacts of their programs and initiatives, identify areas for improvement, and make more informed decisions about program design and implementation. To effectively conduct social impact analysis, organizations should consider factors such as data collection methods, data quality and reliability, data visualization, and data governance. By leveraging data science techniques and tools, organizations can more effectively collect, analyze, and utilize social impact data to improve the effectiveness of their programs and initiatives and have a greater positive impact on society.